Epigenetic diagnostics of cancer — the application of DNA methylation markers
- 309 Downloads
In recent years it has become apparent that epigenetic events are potentially equally responsible for cancer initiation and progression as genetic abnormalities. DNA methylation is the main epigenetic modification in humans. Two DNA methylation lesions coexist in human neoplasms: hypermethylation of promoter regions of specific genes within a context of genomic hypomethylation. Aberrant methylation is found at early stages of carcinogenesis and distinct types of cancer exhibit specific patterns of methylation changes. Tumor specific DNA is readily obtainable from different clinical samples and methylation status analysis often permits sensitive disease detection. Methylation markers may also serve for prognostic and predictive purposes as they often reflect the metastatic potential and sensitivity to therapy. As current findings show a great potential of recently characterised methylation markers, more studies in the field are needed in the future. Large clinical studies of newly developed markers are especially needed. The review describes the diagnostic potential of DNA methylation markers.
Key wordscancer diagnostics DNA hypermethylation DNA hypomethylation epigenetics methylation markers
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Hegi ME, Diserens AC, Godard S, Dietrich PY, Regli L, Ostermann S, et al. 2004. Clinical trial substantiates the predictive value of O-6-methylaguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation in glioblastoma patients treated with temozolomide. Clin Cancer Res 10: 1871–1874.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim H, Kwon YM, Kim JS, Lee H, Park JH, Shim YM, et al. 2004. Tumor-specific methylation in bronchial lavage for the early detection of non-small-cell lung cancer Cancer. 22: 2363–2370.Google Scholar
- Marchevsky AM, Tsou JA, Laird-Offringa IA, 2004. Classification of individual lung cancer cell lines based on DNA methylation markers. Use of linear discriminant analysis and artificial neural networks. JMolDiagn6: 28–36.Google Scholar
- Roman-Gomez J, Castillejo JA, Jimenez A, Gonzalez MG, Moreno F, del Carmen Rodriguez M, et al. 2002. 5’CpG island hypermethylation is associated with transcriptional silencing of the p21CIP1/WAF1/SDI1 gene and confers poor prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 99: 2291–2296.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar