Detection and estimation of aflatoxins using both chemical and biological techniques
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Production of aflatoxins on both natural (rice and corn) and semisynthetic (YES) media was conducted using an identified toxin-producing strain ofAspergillus flavus. TheA flavus strain was able to produce 4 types of aflatoxins, namely B1, B2, G1, and G2 on rice, corn, and YES media. Quantitative data showed that the concentrations of aflatoxins B1 and G1 produced were 52, 40.3, and 39.6; and 64.7, 45.0, and 58.0jug for 50g of rice, corn, and YES media, respectively. In comparison, the yielded amounts of aflatoxins B2 and G2 were much lower: 11.5, 17.9, and 17.5; and 28.S, 40.3, and 39.5 μg for 50 g of rice, corn, and YES media, respectively.
A bioassay was conducted using the following 5 standard bacterial strains:Bacillus megaterium. Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecal is, Staphylococcus epidermidis, andParacoccus denitrificans as well as a field strain of Candida albicans. All strains exceptP denitrificans showed varied degrees of inhibition when applied with crude aflatoxins at 5 to 40μg/mL. The minimum concentration of crude aflatoxins needed to inhibitP denitrificans was 10μg/mL. Moreover,Candida albicans was not inhibited at any concentration of aflatoxins applied in this work.
Both undiluted and diluted (1/10, 1/100, and 1/1000) bacterial broth cultures showed a direct relationship between the diameter of inhibition zones and the concentrations of crude aflatoxins. Mean diameters of (7.0–20.5), (5–14), (4.5–13.0), (3.0–12.0), and (1.5–11.0) mm were observed when various concentrations of aflatoxins were applied usingB megaterium, S epidermidis, S faecal is, B subtilis, andP denitrificans, respectively.
Field trials were applied to testify the validity of our data. A 1/100 dilution was prepared from each strain of 4 different species to estimate aflatoxins in samples of contaminated corn. Both chemical and biological assays were carried out at the same time. Data revealed that the most sensitive organism inhibited by as low as 7.5μg aflatoxins/mL wasB megaterium giving an inhibition zone of 10.5 mm, followed byS epidermidis with an inhibition zone of 7.5mm. In relation, the other 2 organisms were less sensitive to crude aflatoxins. Similarly, the biological assay was applied to detect aflatoxins in some samples of wheat, corn, peanut, rice, and poultry rations. Of the 14 wheat and 10 corn samples, only 4 wheat and 2 corn samples were found to be positive. The same results were obtained using TLC analysis.
KeywordsAflatoxin Candida Albicans Rabie Inhibition Zone Bacillus Megaterium
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