Kinetics of ketamine and its metabolites in rabbits with normal and impaired renal function

  • J. L. Pedraz
  • J. M. Lanao
  • A. Dominguez-Gil
Original Papers


The plasma levels of ketamine, an anaesthetic, a n d its metabolites were studied in 10 rabbits with normal renal function a n d in 9 rabbits with varying degrees of experimentally induced renal impairment. All the animals received a single bolus type i.v. dose of 10 mg/kg of the drug. The results obtained reveal an apparent inhibition of the biotransformation of ketamine in rabbits with renal impairment in which the drug is accumulated. The plasma half-life of ketamine ranged from 0.74 h in rabbits with normal renal function to 2.6 h in the animals with severe renal impairment. The plasma levels of norketamine (metabolite I) did not alter significantly in states of renal impairment. However, the kinetics of t h e other metabolite (II), dehydronorketamine, did change significantly in renal impairment, due to its high renal excretion capacity.


Ketamine pharmacokinetics metabolism renal impairment 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Clements J.A., Nimmo C.S. and Grant J.S. (1982): Bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and analgesic activity of ketamine in humans. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences,71, 539–542.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wieber J., Gugler R., Hengstuman J.H. and Dengler M.J. (1975): Pharmacokinetic of ketamine in man. Anaesthetist,24, 260–263.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chang T. and Glazko A.J. (1974): Biotransformation and disposition of ketamine. International Anesthesiology Clinics,12, 157–177.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Steimberg P. and Idwall J. (1981): Does ketamine metabolite II exist in vivo? British Journal of Anaesthesia,53, 778.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pedraz J.L., Marino E.L. and Dominguez-Gil A. (1983): Quantitative determination of ketamine and its metabolites in man by gas-liquid chromatography. II Farmaco,38, 209–218.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kaka J.S. and Hayton W.J. (1980): Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and two metabolites in the dog. Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics,8, 193–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pfeffer M. (1973): COMP a time-sharing program for non linear regresion analysis of compartmental models of drug distribution. Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics,1, 137–163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nemeth I. and Szeleczki T. (1980): Increased D-glucaric acid excretion in children with renal disease. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology,18, 357–360.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Verbeeck P.K., Branch R.A. and Wilkinson G.R. (1981): Drug metabolites in renal failure. Pharmacokinetics and clinical implications. Clinical Pharmacokinetics,6, 329–345.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. L. Pedraz
    • 1
  • J. M. Lanao
    • 1
  • A. Dominguez-Gil
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of SalamancaSalamancaSpain

Personalised recommendations