KSME International Journal

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 177–187 | Cite as

Time-dependent FEM simulation of dilution control of laser cladding by adaptive mesh method

  • Jae-Do Kim
  • Yun Peng
Materials & Fracture · Solids & Structures · Dynamics & Control · Production & Design


Dilution is an important factor which influences the properties of clad layer. In this paper the change of dilution during laser cladding and the control of dilution are simulated by a finite element method. The adaptive mesh method is adopted for the time-dependent finite element method computation so that the shape of melt pool can be well represented. The situation of the width control of melt pool is also simulated, which indicates that the dilution can be controlled if the width of melt pool is controlled. Computational results indicate that if a line energy (input energy per unit distance) remains constant the dilution will increase with time, especially at the beginning. Simulation results show that it is possible to control dilution in a certain range if the line energy decreases with time. Experiment of Nd: YAG laser cladding with wire feeding is performed. Experiment results coincide well with the FEM results.

Key Words

FEM Adaptive Mesh Laser Cladding Dilution 



Thermal conductivity


Mass density


Specific heat


Convective heat transfer coefficient




Melting point


Ambient temperature


Laser power


Cladding speed


Absorbed power density

Open image in new window

Heat capacity matrix

Open image in new window

Conductivity matrix

Open image in new window

Nodal force vector


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agrawal, G., Kar, A. and Mazumder, J., 1993, “Theoretical Studies on Extended Solid Solubility and Nonequilibrium Phase Diagram for Nb−Al Alloy Formed During Laser Cladding,”Scripta Metallurgic et Materialia 28, (11), 1453–1458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atamert, S., and Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H., 1989, “Comparison of the Microstructures and Abrasive Wear Properties of Stellite Hardfacing Alloys Deposited by Arc Welding and Laser Cladding,”Metall. Trans. A 20A, (6), 1037–1054.Google Scholar
  3. Chan, C., Mazumder, J. and Chen, M. M., 1984, “A Two-Dimensional Transient Model for Convection in Laser Melted Pool,”Metall. Trans. A, Vol. 15A, pp. 2175–2184.Google Scholar
  4. Damborene, J. J., Vazquez, A. J., Lopez, V., Weerasinghe, V. M. and West, D. R. F., 1993, “Laser Cladding of Austenitic Stainless Steel on Mild Steel-Microstructural and Corrosion Properties,”Processing of Advanced Materials 3, (2), 107–113, ISSN: 0960-314X.Google Scholar
  5. David, S A; Vitek, J M; “Correlation Between Solidification Parameters and Weld Microstructures,”International Materials Reviews, 1989, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 213–245.Google Scholar
  6. Denney, P. E. and Duhamel, R., 1998, “Update: Laser Beam Cladding with CO2 and Nd:YAG Laser,”Industrial Laser Review, No. 11, pp. 19–21.Google Scholar
  7. Fouquet, F., Sallamand, P., Millet, J. P., Frenk, A., Wagniere, J. D., 1994, “Austentic Stainless Steel Layers Deposited by Laser Cladding on a Mild Steel, Realization and Characterization,”J. Phys. (France) IV 4, (C4), 89–92.Google Scholar
  8. Frenk, A., Henchoz, N., and Kurz, W., 1993, “Laser Cladding of a Cobalt-Based Alloy, Processing Parameters and Microstructure,”Zeitschrift Fur Metallkunde 84, (12), 886–892. ISSN: 0044-3093.Google Scholar
  9. Hirose, A., Kohno, W., Nomura, D. and Kobayashi, K. F., 1992, “Formation of Hardfacing Clad by Laser Cladding with Blown Powder,”Tetsu-To-Hagane (Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan) 78, (10), 1585–1592.Google Scholar
  10. Hoadley, A. F. A. and Rappaz, M., 1992, “A Thermal Model of Laser Cladding by Powder Injection,”Metall. Trans. B, Vol. 23B, pp. 631–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kar, A. and Mazumder, J., 1988, “One-Dimensional Finite-Medium Diffusion Model for Extended Solid Solution in Laser Cladding of Hf on Nickel,”Acta Metall. Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 701–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kar, A. and Mazumder, J., 1989, “Extended Solution and Nonequilibrium Phase Diagram for Ni−Al Alloy Formed during Laser Cladding,”Metall. Trans. A, Vol. 20A, pp. 363–371.Google Scholar
  13. Kim, J. D. and Subramanian, R. V., 1988, “Heat Flow in Laser Beam Welding,”4th Intl Conf. on Welding by Electron and Laser Beams, Cannes France, pp. 175–182.Google Scholar
  14. Kim, J. D. et al., 1992, “The Behavior of Fracture Deviation in the Impact Test of Narrow Laser Welds,”Proc. of the Intl Symposium on Impact Engineering, Sendai, Japan, pp. 455–460.Google Scholar
  15. Kim, J. D., Na, I. and Park, C. C., 1998, “CO2 Laser Welding of Zinc-Coated Steel Sheets,”KSME International Journal, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 606–614.Google Scholar
  16. Koshy, P., 1985, “Laser Cladding Techniques for Application to Wear and Corrosion Resistant Coatings,” Conference: Applications of High Power Lasers, Los Angeles, California, USA, 22–23 Jan. 1985, Publ: SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, P. O. Box 10, Bellingham, Washington 98227-0010, USA, 80–85.Google Scholar
  17. Li, L. J. and Mazumder, J., 1984, “Laser Processing of Materials (edited by K. Mukherjee and J. Mazumder),” pp. 35–50.Proc. Metal. Soc. AIME, Los Angeles, Calif.Google Scholar
  18. Liu, Y., Mazumder, J. and Shibata, K., 1994, “Laser Cladding of Nickel-Aluminum Bronze on Al Alloy AA333,”Metall. Mater. Trans. B 25B, (5), 749–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mazumder, J. and Kar, A., 1987, “Solid Solubility in Laser Cladding,”J. Met. 39, (2), 18–23.Google Scholar
  20. Mazumder, J., Sircar, S., Ribaudo, C. and Kar, A., 1992, “Laser Cladding of Non-Equilibrium Metallic Alloys,”Thermomechanical Aspects of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, 319–335; Publ: Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 79 Madison Ave., New York 10016-7892, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Mohanty, P. S. and Mazumder, J., 1998, “Solidification Behavior and Microstructural Evolution during Laser Beam-Material Interaction,”Metall. Mater. Trans. B, Vol. 29B, pp. 1269–1279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ono, M., Kosuge, S., Nakada, K. and Watanabe, I., 1987, “Development of Laser Clading Process,”Conference: LAMP’87: Laser Advanced Materials Process—Science and Applications, Osaka, Japan, 21–23 May 1987; Publ: High Temperature Society of Japan, c/o Welding Research Institute of Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567, Japan; 395–400.Google Scholar
  23. Ramous, E., Giordano, L., Tiziani, A., Badan, B, and Cantello, M., 1989, “Laser Cladding of Ceramic and Metallic Coatings on Steel,”Conference: Surface Engineering With High Energy Beams: Science and Technology, Lisbon, Portugal, 25–27 Sept. 1989; Publ: CEMUL, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1096 Lisboa Codex, Portugal, 425–433.Google Scholar
  24. Tosto, S., Pierdominici, F. and Bianco, M., 1994, “Laser Cladding and Alloying of a Nickel-Base Superalloy on Plain Carbon Steel,”J. Mater. Sci. 29, (2), 504–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Uenishi, K. and Kobayashi, K. F., 1993, “Laser Cladding of Intermetallic Compound Al3Ti on Aluminum Substrate,”Kei Kinzoku Yosetsu (Journal of Light Metal Welding and Construction) 31, (4), 1–5.Google Scholar
  26. Yang, X., Zheng, T., Zhang, N., Zhong, M., Lin, Y. and Gao, S., 1992, “Convection and Mass Transfer in Laser Cladding on FeCrSiB Alloy,”Acta Metallurgica Sinica (China) 28, (2), B84-B88. ISSN: 0412-1961.Google Scholar
  27. Yellup, J. M., 1995, “Laser Cladding Using the Powder Blowing Technique,”Surf. Coat. Technol. 71, (2), 121–128, ISSN: 0257-8972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers (KSME) 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringInha UniversityInchonKorea

Personalised recommendations