Residues of HCH isomers and DDT derivatives in Israeli milk and their seasonal fluctuations
- 9 Downloads
Residue analysis of milk fat from 12 commercial dairies showed that p,p′-DDE, α-HCH and γ-HCH were the major and most frequent contaminants, at 0.15–0.3 ppm. Beta isomer of HCH was found in the milk in much smaller concentrations (less than 0.05 ppm). Further studies showed that the residue levels of α- and γ-HCH in the milk changed considerably during the 18 months of the experiment. The concentrations fluctuated from a maximum of 1.4–1.6 ppm to as low as 5–10% of these values. The variations in concentration for α- and γ-HCH were very similar, and were found to result from commercial spraying of cows with a formulation of HCH. Three days after spraying two groups of cows with HCH, the residue level rose from 0.02–0.05 ppm to 0.18 ppm. During the next 2–3 months, the concentration of these isomers in the milk fat decreased to 0.02–0.04 ppm. A second spray resulted in an even faster accumulation of α and γ isomers in the milk fat, up to 0.38 ppm, three days after treatment. Comparison between the results obtained from the two groups of cows and those obtained from the analysis of 12 cows showed very small individual variations, with a standard deviation of 15–30% of the mean. The results for DDE were different: its concentration in the milk did not fluctuate so much, and it was similar for all the dairies examined.
In goat milk, the concentration of HCH isomers was much lower, not exceeding 0.02–0.05 ppm. The level of DDE was also much lower, 0.02–0.07 ppm.
Key wordsResidue analysis milk fat chlorinated insecticides, HCH, DDT, DDE, absorption through skin accumulation pattern seasonal fluctuations
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Campbell, J.F., Richardson, L.A. and Schaffer, M.L. (1965) Insecticide residues in the human diet.Arch. environ. Hlth 10: 831–836.Google Scholar
- 6.Gidding, J.C. (1973)in: Chemistry, Man and Environmental Change. Harper and Row Publ., San Francisco, Calif. pp. 359–387.Google Scholar
- 7.Kenaga, E.E. (1972) Factors related to bioconcentration of pesticides.in: Matsumura, F., Boush, G.M. and Misato, T. [Eds.] Environmental Toxicology of Pesticides. Academic Press. New York. pp. 193–228.Google Scholar
- 8.Korte, F. (1972) Chemistry and metabolism of terminal residues of organochlorine compounds — state of art.in: Tahori, A.S. [Ed.] Pesticides Chemistry. Gordon and Breach Science Publ., New York. Vol. 6, pp. 205–222.Google Scholar
- 9.Lawrence, J.H. and Burke, J.A. (1969) Comparison of ten methods for the analysis of milk for residues of chlorinated pesticides.J. Ass. Off. anal. Chem. 52: 817–824.Google Scholar
- 10.McCully, K.A. (1971) Methodology of residue analysis for organochlorine pesticides and acaricides.in: Tahori, A.S. [Ed.] Pesticides Chemistry. Gordon and Breach Science Publ., New York. Vol. 4, pp. 315–356.Google Scholar
- 11.McMahon, B.M. and Sawyer, L.D. [Eds.] (1975)in: Pesticide Analytical Manual. U.S. Dep. of Health, Education and Welfare, Food and Drug Administration, Wash., D.C. Vol. 1, paragraphs 134, 211.Google Scholar
- 12.Matthysse, J.G. (1974) Insecticides used on dairy cattle and in dairy barns: toxicology to man and cattle, hazards to the consumer and the environment.J. Milk Fd Technol. 37: 255–264.Google Scholar
- 13.Moffitt, R.A. (1963) Residue analysis in the food industry.in: Zweig, G. [Ed.] Analytical Methods of Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulators and Food Additives. Academic Press, New York. Vol. 1, pp. 545–570.Google Scholar