A simplified approach for exit dose in vivo measurements in radiotherapy and its clinical application

  • D. P. Banjade
  • S. L. Shrestha
  • A. Shukri
  • A. A. Tajuddin
  • M. Bhat


This is a study using LiF:Mg;Ti thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) rods in phantoms to investigate the effect of lack of backscatter on exit dose. Comparing the measured dose with anticipated dose calculated using tissue maximum ratio (TMR) or percentage depth dose (PDD) gives rise to a correction factor. This correction factor may be applied to in-vivo dosimetry results to derive true dose to a point within the patient. Measurements in a specially designed humanoid breast phantom as well as patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment were also been done. TLDs with reproducibility of within ±3% (1 SD) are irradiated in a series of measurements for 6 and 10 MV photon beams from a medical linear accelerator. The measured exit doses for the different phantom thickness for 6 MV beams are found to be lowered by 10. 9 to 14. 0% compared to the dose derived from theoretical estimation (normalized dose at dmax). The same measurements for 10 MV beams are lowered by 9. 0 to 13. 5%. The variations of measured exit dose for different field sizes are found to be within 2. 5%. The exit doses with added backscatter material from 2 mm up to 15 cm, shows gradual increase and the saturated values agreed within 1. 5% with the expected results for both beams. The measured exit doses in humanoid breast phantom as well as in the clinical trial on patients undergoing radiotherapy also agreed with the predicted results based on phantom measurements. The authors’ viewpoint is that this technique provides sufficient information to design exit surface bolus to restore build down effect in cases where part of the exit surface is being considered as a target volume. It indicates that the technique could be translated forin vivo dose measurements, which may be a conspicuous step of quality assurance in clinical practice.

Key words

exit dose exit surface bolus in vivo dosimetry radiotherapy TLDs 


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Copyright information

© Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. P. Banjade
    • 1
  • S. L. Shrestha
    • 2
  • A. Shukri
    • 1
  • A. A. Tajuddin
    • 1
  • M. Bhat
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Physics Universiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyTribhuvan University Teaching HospitalKathmanduNepal
  3. 3.Department of Medical PhysicsRoyal Adelaide HospitalAdelaide

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