In vitro effect of pH and ethanol on biofilm formation by clinicalica-positiveStaphylococcus epidermidis strains
- 255 Downloads
Biofilm production is an important step in the pathogenesis ofStaphylococcus epidermidis associated biomaterial infections.Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from dialysis fluid (n=9) and needle cultures (n=14) were phenotyped and genotyped for extracellular polysaccharide production and were examined for their ability to produce slime in a medium at various pH levels (3, 5, 7, 9 and 12) and with ethanol supplementation (0, 2, 5, 10 and 15%) using a semi-quantitative adherence assay. A total of 23 clinicalicaADBC positiveS. epidermidis, one reference strain (S. epidermidis CIP 106510) used as positive control, and oneicaADBC negative strain (E21) were investigated. Qualitative biofilm production analysis revealed that 15 of the 23icaADBC positive strains (65.21%) produced slime on Congo Red agar plates. Quantitative biofilm was determined by measuring the optical density at 570 nm (OD570). The results show that the slime production depended on the pH value of the medium and the ethanol concentration. At highly acidic (pH 3) and alkaline (pH 12) levels, the OD570 was lower, while at pH 7 the adhesion was moderate. In addition the cells adhered strongly with 2% ethanol than with the other concentrations. Our results suggest that pH and ethanol were stress factors that led toS. epidermidis biofilm formation and also play a possible role in the pathogenesis of biomaterial-related infections.
Key wordsStaphylococcus epidermidis biofilm ica gene Congo Red agar pH ethanol
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Arciola C.R., Campoccia D., Gamberini S., Cervellati M., Donati E., Montanaro L. (2002). Detection of slime production by means of an optimised Congo red agar plate test based on a colourimetric scale inStaphylococcus epidermidis clinical isolates genotyped forica locus. Biomaterials, 23: 4233–4239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Christensen G.D., Simpson W.A., Younger J.J., Baddour L.M., Barrett F.F., Melton D.M., Beachey E.H. (1985). Adherence of coagulase-negative staphylococci to plastic tissue culture plates: a quantitative model for the adherence of staphylococci to medical devices. J. Clin. Microbiol., 22: 996–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Doyle R. (2000). Contribution of the hydrophobic effect to microbial infection, Microb. Infect. 2: 39–400.Google Scholar
- Knobloch J.K., Bartscht K., Sabottke A., Rohde H., Feucht H.H., Mack D. (2001). Biofilm formation byStaphylococcus epidermidis depends on functionalRsbU, an activator of thesigB operon: differential activation mechanisms due to ethanol and salt stress. J. Bacteriol., 183: 2624–2633.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mack D., Rohde H., Dobinsky S., Riedewald J., Nedelmann M., Knobloch J.K., Elsner H.A., Feucht H.H. (2000). Identification of three essential regulatory gene loci governing expression of theStaphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin and biofilm formation. Infect. Immun., 68: 3799–807.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rachid S., Cho S., Ohlsen K., Hacker J., Ziebuhr W. (2000b). Induction ofStaphylococus epidermidis biofilm formation by environmental factors: the possible involvement of the alternative transcription factor SigB.In L. Emody, G. Blum-Oehler, J. Hacker, Pal T., Eds, Genes and Proteins Underlying Microbial Urinary Tract Virulence. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y., pp. 159–166.Google Scholar
- White A., Handler P., Smith E.L. (1978). Enzymes I, nature, classification, kinetics, metabolic inhibitors: control of enzymatic activity. In: White A., Ed., Principles of Biochemistry, McGraw-Hill, Tokyo, pp. 196–230.Google Scholar