European Journal of Psychology of Education

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 255–273 | Cite as

Values and work environment: Mapping 32 occupations

  • Ariel Knafo
  • Lilach Sagiv


The study addresses the relationship between values and occupations. Israeli workers (N=652; mean age=47; 43% male) in 32 occupations reported their values using the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz, Melech, Lehmann, Burgess, Harris, & Owens, 2001), and value scores were aggregated within occupations. Occupations were classified according to the Holland (1985) typology. Enterprising work environments correlated negatively with universalism values. Social environments correlated positively with benevolence and universalism values and negatively with power and achievement. The artistic environment correlated negatively with conformity values. Investigative environments correlated positively with self-direction values and negatively with tradition. A COPLOT analysis of occupational value priorities yielded meaningful clusters of occupations, each characterized by a distinct value profile, and fitting the Holland typology. The findings point to the importance of values in vocational behavior.

Key words

Career Development Occupational choice Values Work environment 


Cette recherche s'intŕresse à la relation entre les valeurs et les professions. Des professionnels israéliens (N=652; âge moyen: 47; hommes: 43%) exerçant 32 professions distinctes, ont reporté leurs valeurs au moyen du Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001): les scores de valeurs ont été regroupés selon les professions, et les professions classées selon la typologie de Holland. Les résultats montrent que les environnements de travail de type entrepreneurial sont corrélés négativement avec les valeurs d'universalisme. Les professions du type social sont corrélés positivement avec les valeurs de bienveillance et d'universalisme et négativement avec le pouvoir et l'accomplissement social. L'environnement artistique est négativement corrélé avec les valeurs de conformité. L'environnement de type investigatif est positivement corrélé avec l'autonomie et négativement avec la tradition. Une analyse COPLOT montre des clusters de professions caractérisés chacun par un profil de valeur, et ceci conformément à la typologie de Holland. Les résultats indiquent l'importance des valeurs dans l'orientation.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aguirre, A. (1990). Poverty in the United States: Race, ethnic and gender differences. In S. Chan & J. Currie (Eds.),Income and status differences between White and minority Americans: A persistent inequality (pp. 101–121). Lampeter, Dyfed, Wales: Edwin Mellen Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alwin, D.F. (1990). Cohort replacement and changes in parental socialization values.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 347–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aunola K., Vanhatalo, O., & Sethi, R. (2001). Social background, values, and parenting.Psykologia, 36, 148–158.Google Scholar
  4. Borg, I., & Shye, S. (1993).Facet theory: The method and its applications. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, D. (2002). The role of work and cultural values in occupational choice, satisfaction, and success: A theoretical statement.Journal of Counseling and Development, 80, 48–56.Google Scholar
  6. Chatman, J.A. (1989). Improving interactional organizational research: A model of person-organization fit.Academy of Management Review, 14, 333–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chatman, J.A. (1991). Matching people and organizations: Selection and socialization in public accounting firms.Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 459–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dawis, R.V., & Lofquist, L.H. (1993). From TWA to PEC.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 43, 113–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Denton, D.W. (1999). The attraction-selection-attrition model of organizational behavior and the homogeneity of managerial personality.Current Research in Social Psychology, 4, 146–159.Google Scholar
  10. Eagly, A.H., & Steffen, V.J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 735–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Furnham, A. (1988). Values and vocational choice: A study of value differences in medical, nursing and psychology students.Social Science and Medicine, 26, 613–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gatton, D.S., DuBois, C.L.Z., & Faley, R.H. (1999). The effects of organizational context on occupational genderstereotyping.Sex Roles, 40, 567–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goldreich, Y., & Raveh, A. (1993).COPLOT display technique as an aid to climatic classification.Geographical Analysis, 25, 337–353.Google Scholar
  14. Gottfredson, G.D., Holland, J.L., & Ogawa, D.K. (1982).Dictionary of Holland occupational codes. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  15. Guimond, S. (1995). Encounter and metamorphosis: The impact of military socialisation on professional values.Applied Psychology: An International Review, 44, 251–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Guttman, L. (1968). A general nonmetric technique for finding the smallest coordinate space for a configuration of points.Psychometrica, 33, 469–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holland, J.L. (1985).Making vocational choice: A theory of careers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  18. Holland, J.L. (1997).Making vocational choice: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments (3rd ed). Boston: Psychological Assessment Resources INC.Google Scholar
  19. Holland, J.L., & Gottfredson, G.D. (1976). Using a typology of persons and environments to explain careers,Counseling Psychologist, 6, 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Knafo, A. (2003). Contexts, relationship quality, and family value socialization: The case of parent-school ideological fit in Israel.Personal Relationships, 10, 373–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Knafo, A., & Schwartz, S.H. (2001). Value socialization in families of Israeli-born and Soviet-born adolescents in Israel.Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 213–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Knafo, A., & Schwartz, S.H. (2003a). Culture-appropriate parenting and value transmission in families of Israeli-born and Soviet-born adolescents in Israel. In T. Horowitz, S. Hoffman, & B. Kotik-Friedgut (Eds.),From pacesetters to dropouts: Post-Soviet youth in comparative perspective (pp. 69–88). New York: The Rowan and Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  23. Knafo, A., & Schwartz, S.H. (2003b). Parenting and accuracy of perception of parental values by adolescents.Child Development, 73, 595–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Knafo, A., & Schwartz, SH. (2004a). Identity status and parent-child value congruence in adolescence.British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 22, 439–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Knafo, A., & Schwartz, S.H. (2004b).Value transmission in the family: Effects of family background and implications for educational achievement. Jerusalem: NCJW Research Institute for Innovation in Education (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  26. Kohn, M.L., & Schooler, C. (1983).Work and personality. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  27. Maccoby, E.E. (1998).The two sexes: Growing up apart, coming together. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  28. Pryor, R.G.L., & Taylor N.B. (1986). On combining scores from interest and value measures for counseling.The Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 34, 178–187.Google Scholar
  29. Reardon, R., Vernick, S., & Reed, C. (2001).A Holland perspective on the U.S. workforce from 1960 to 1990 (Tech. Rep. No. 33). Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University.Google Scholar
  30. Reskin, B.F., & Hartmann, H.I. (Eds.). (1986).Women's work, men's work: Sex segregation on the job. Washington, DC: National Academy.Google Scholar
  31. Rokeach, M. (1973).The nature of human values. New-York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  32. Rounds, J.B. (1990). The comparative and combined utility of work value and interest data in career counseling with adults.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 37, 32–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sagiv, L. (2002). Vocational interests and basic values.Journal of Career Assessment, 10, 233–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sagiv, L., & Schwartz, S.H. (2000). Values priorities and subjective well-being: Direct relations and congruity effects.European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 177–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place.Personnel Psychology, 40, 437–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schneider, B., Goldstein, H.W., & Smith, D.B. (1995). The ASA framework: An update.Personnel Psychology, 48, 747–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schwartz, S.H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M.P. Zanna (Ed.),Advances in experimental social psychology (vol. 25, pp. 1–65). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  38. Schwartz, S.H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the content and structure of values?Journal of Social Issues, 50, 19–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schwartz, S.H., & Bardi, A. (2001). Value hierarchies across cultures: Taking a similarities perspective.Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 268–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schwartz, S.H., & Sagiv, L. (1995). Identifying culture specifics in the content and structure of values.Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26, 92–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schwartz, S.H., Lehmann, A., & Roccas, S. (1999). Multimethod probes of basic human values. In J. Adamopoulos & Y. Kashima (Eds.),Social psychology and culture context: Essays in honor of Harry C. Triandis (pp. 107–123). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Schwartz, S.H., Melech, G., Lehmann, A., Burgess, S., Harris, M., & Owens, V. (2001). Extending the cross-cultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement.Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 519–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shye, S., & Elizur, D. (1994).Introduction to facet theory. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  44. Tracey, T.L., & Rounds, J. (1993). Evaluating Holland's and Gati's Vocational-Interest models: A structural meta-analysis.Psychological Bulletin, 113, 229–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Trusty, J., Ng, K.-M., & Ray, D. (2000). Choice of Holland's Social type college majors for U.S. racial/ethnic groups.Journal of Career Development, 27, 49–64.Google Scholar
  46. Walsh, W.B., & Holland, J.L. (1992). A theory of personality types and work environments. In W.B. Walsh, K.H. Craik, & R.H. Price (Eds.),Person-environment psychology: Models and perspectives (pp. 35–78). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© I.S.P.A 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ariel Knafo
    • 1
  • Lilach Sagiv
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyThe University of MichiganAnn arborUSA

Personalised recommendations