Advertisement

Students’ perceptions of parental and teacher academic involvement: Consequences on achievement goals

  • Isabelle Régner
  • Florence Loose
  • Florence Dumas
Article

Abstract

The present study examined whether students’ perceptions of two major facets of parental and teacher academic involvement (i.e., academic support and academic monitoring), contribute to the process of students’ achievement goals adoption. French junior high-school students completed two questionnaires assessing first their perceptions of parental and teacher academic involvement, and then their achievement goals three months later. Factorial analyses showed that students differentiated parental academic monitoring from parental academic support, while predominantly perceiving their teacher academic involvement as reflecting monitoring. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that, as expected, students’ perceptions of parental academic support were positively related to mastery goals while unrelated to performance goals. Also as expected, perceived academic monitoring was associated with performance goals, although the findings revealed an equal contribution of perceived parental and teacher involvement. This new insight about the antecedents of students’ achievement goals emphasizes how important is the role of parental and teacher academic socialization.

Key words

Academic monitoring Academic support Achievement goals Parental academic involvement Teacher academic involvement 

Résumé

L’objectif de cette étude était d’examiner si l’implication que les élèves perçoivent de la part de leurs parents et de leurs enseignants dans leur scolarité (implication perçue étudiée à travers ses deux principales dimensions: soutien et contrôle) influence le type de buts d’accomplissement qu’ils adoptent. Des collégiens français ont rempli deux questionnaires. Le premier mesurait leurs perceptions du soutien et du contrôle scolaires émanant de leurs parents et de leurs enseignants. Le second, trois mois plus tard, évaluait leurs buts d’accomplissement. Les analyses factorielles ont tout d’abord montré que les élèves font une nette distinction entre les deux composantes de l’implication parentale (soutien vs contrôle). A l’inverse, ils perçoivent l’implication de leurs enseignants comme relevant essentiellement du contrôle. Les analyses multi-niveaux ont indiqué que la perception qu’ont les élèves du soutien parental est positivement associée aux buts de maîtrise, mais n’est pas reliée aux buts de performance. Finalement, la perception qu’ils ont du contrôle scolaire (exercé aussi bien par leurs parents que par leurs enseignants) est associée aux buts de performance. Cette nouvelle contribution sur les antécédents des buts d’accomplissement en contexte académique confirme l’importance du rôle des parents et des enseignants dans la socialisation scolaire.

References

  1. Ames, C. (1984). Achievement attributions and self-instructions under competitive and individual goal structures.Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 478–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation.Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). “Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivation Processes”.Journal of Education Psychology, 80, 260–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderman, E., & Midgley, C. (1997). Changes in personal achievement goals and the perceived classroom goal structures across the transition to middle level schools.Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 269–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baron, R.M., & Kenny, D.A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bentler, P.M. (1990). Comparative fit indices in structural models.Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures.Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bong, M. (2008). Effects of parent-child relationships and classroom goal structures on motivation, help-seeking avoidance, and cheating.Journal of Experimental Education, 76, 191–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Browne, M.W., & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit.Sociological Methods & Research, 21, 230–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bryk, A.S., & Raudenbush, S.W. 1992.Hierarchical linear models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Butler, R. (1995). Motivational and informational functions and consequences of children’s attention to peers’ work.Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 347–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Byrne, B.M. (2001).Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  13. Chouinard, R., Karsenti, T., & Roy, N. (2007). Relations among competence beliefs, utility value, achievement goals, and effort in mathematics.British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 501–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Church, M.A., Elliot, A.J., & Gable, S.L., (2001). Perceptions of classroom environment, achievement goals, and achievement outcomes.Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 43–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cury, F., Elliot, A.J., Da Fonseca, D., & Moller, A.C. (2006). The social motivation and the 2x2 achievement goal framework.Journal of Personal Social Psychology, 90, 666–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model.Psychological Bulletin, 113, 487–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dweek, C.S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learningAmerican Psychologist, 41, 1040–1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eccles, J.S., & Harold, R.D. (1993). Parent-school involvement during the early adolescent years.Teachers College Record, 94, 568–587.Google Scholar
  19. Eccles, J., Midgley, C., & Adler, T. (1984). Grade-related changes in the school environment: Effects on achievement motivation. In J. Nicholls (Ed.),The development of achievement motivation (vol. 3, pp. 282–331). Greenwich CT: JAI PressGoogle Scholar
  20. Elliot, A.J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals.Educational Psychologist, 34, 149–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Elliot, A.J., & Church, M.A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 218–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Elliot, A.J., & McGregor, H.A. (2001). A 2x2 achievement goal framework.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Epstein, J.L. (1991). Effects on student achievement of teacher’s practices of parent involvement. In S. Silvern (Ed.),Advances in reading/language research: A research annual: Vol. 5. Literacy through family, community and school interaction (pp. 261–276). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  24. Felner, R.D., Aber, M.S., Primavera, J. & Cauce, A.M. (1985). Adaptation and vulnerability in high risk adolescents: An examination of environmental mediators.American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 365–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frome, P.M., & Eccles, J.S. (1998). Parents’ influence on children’s achievement-related perceptions.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 435–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ginorio, A., & Huston, M. (2001).Si, se puede! Yes, we can, Latinas in school. Washington, DC: AAUW Foundation.Google Scholar
  27. Goldstein, H. (1995).Multilevel statistical models. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  28. Gonzalez, A.R., Holbein, M.F.D., & Quilter, S. (2002). High school students’ goal orientations and their relationship to perceived parenting styles.Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27, 450–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gonzalez-DeHass, A.R., Willems, P.P., & Doan, M.F. (2005). Examining the relationship between parental involvement and student motivation.Educational Psychology Review, 17, 99–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goodenow, C. (1993). Classroom belonging among early adolescent students: Relationships to motivation and achievement.Journal of Early Adolescence, 13, 21–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grolnick, W.S., & Slowiaczek, M.L. (1994). Parents’ involvement in children’s schooling: A multidimensional conceptualization and motivational model.Child Development, 64, 237–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grolnick, W.S., Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (1991). Inner resources for school achievement: Motivational mediators of children’s perceptions of their parents.Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 508–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gurland, S.T., & Grolnick, W.S. (2005). Perceived threat, controlling parenting, and children’s achievement orientations.Motivation & Emotion, 29, 103–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hair, J.F., Anderson, Jr., R.E., Tathman, R.L., & Black, W.C. (1999).Análisis multivariante. Madrid: Pearson Educatión.Google Scholar
  35. Harackiewicz, J.M., Barron, K.E., Carter, S.M., Lehto, A.T., & Elliot, A.J. (1997). Predictors and consequences of achievement goals in the college classroom: Maintaining interest and making the grade.Journal of Personallty and Social Psychology, 73, 1284–1295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harackiewicz, J.M., Barron, K.E., Pintrich, P.R., Elliot, A.J., & Thrash, T.M. (2002). Revision of achievement goal theory: Necessary and illuminating.Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 638–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harackiewicz, J.M., Durik, A.M., Barron, K.E., Linnenbrink-Garcia, L., & Tauer, J.M. (2008). The role of achievement goals in the development of interest: Reciprocal relations between achievement goals, interest, and performance.Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 105–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Heatherton, T.F., & Polivy, J. (1991). Development and validation of a scale from measuring state self-esteem.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 895–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteriaversus new alternatives.Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jöreskog, K.G., & Sörbom, D. (2000).LISREL 8 user’s reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software.Google Scholar
  41. Kaplan, A., & Midgley, C. (1997). The effect of achievement goals: Does level of perceived academic competence make a difference?Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 415–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kreft, I.G.G., & de Leeuw, J. (1998).Introducing multilevel modeling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  43. Krull, J.L., & MacKinnon, D.P. (1999). Multilevel mediation modeling in group-based intervention studies.Evaluation Review, 23, 418–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Krull, J.L., & MacKinnon, D.P. (2001). Multilevel modeling of individual and group level mediated effects.Multivariate Behavioral Research, 36, 249–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Maehr, M.L. (1984). Meaning and motivation: Toward a theory of personal investment. In R. Ames & C. Ames (Eds.),Research on motivation in education, Vol. 1: Student motivation (pp. 115–144). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  46. Maehr, M.L. (1989). Thoughts about motivation. In C. Ames & R. Ames (Eds.),Research on motivation in education: Vol. 3: Goals and cognitions (pp. 299–315). Orlando: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  47. Maehr, M.L., & Midgley, C. (1991). Enhancing student motivation: A schoolwide approach.Educational Psychologist, 26, 399–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Marsh, H.W., Martin, A.J., & Cheng, J.H.C. (2008). A multilevel perspective on gender in classroom motivation and climate: Potential benefits of male teachers for boys?Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 78–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Midgley, C., Feldlauffer, H., & Eccles J. (1989). Student/teacher relations and attitudes toward mathematics before and after the transition to junior high school.Child Development, 60, 981–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Midgley, C., Kaplan, A., & Middleton, M. (2001). Performance-approach goals: Good for what, for whom, under what circumstances, and at what cost?Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nezlek, J.B. (2001). Multilevel random coefficient analyses of event- and interval-contingent data in social and personality psychology research.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 771–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nicholls, J.G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance.Psychological Review, 91, 328–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Patrick, H., Ryan, A.M., & Kaplan, A. (2007). Early adolescents’ perceptions of the classroom social environment, motivational beliefs, and engagement.Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 83–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pintrich, P.R. (2000a). An achievement goal theory perspective on issues in motivation terminology, theory, and research.Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 92–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pintrich, P.R. (2000b). Multiple goals, multiple pathways: The role of goal orientations in learning and achievement.Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 544–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pintrich, P.R., & Schunk, D.H. (2002).Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  57. Raudenbush, S.W., & Bryk, A.S. (2002).Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  58. Raudenbush, S.W., Bryk, A., Cheong, Y.F., & Congdon, R. (2004).HLM6: Hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Chicago: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
  59. Régner, I., & Loose, F. (2006). Relationship of socio-cultural factors and academic self-esteem to school grades and school disengagement in North African French adolescents.British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 777–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Régner, I., Escribe, C., & Dupeyrat, C. (2007). Evidence of social comparison in mastery goals in natural academic settings.Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 575–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Roeser, R.W., Midgley, C., & Urdan, T.C. (1996). Perceptions of the school psychological environment and early adolescents’ psychological and behavioral functioning in school: The mediating role of goals and belonging.Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 408–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Snijders, T., & Bosker, R. (1999).Multilevel analysis. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  63. Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S.D., Dornbusch, S.M., & Darling, N. (1992). Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed.Child Development, 63 1266–1281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stodolsky, S.S., Salk, S., & Glaessner, B. (1991). Students’ views about learning math and social studies.American Educational Research Journal, 28, 89–116.Google Scholar
  65. Strage, A., & Swanson-Brandt, T. (1999). Authoritative parenting and college students’ academic adjustment and success.Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 146–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Valenzuela, A. (1999).Subtractive schooling: U.S.-Mexican youth and the politics of caring Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  67. Wentzel, K. (1994). Relations of social goal pursuit to social acceptance, classroom behavior, and perceived social support.Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wentzel, K.R. (1997). Student motivation in middle school: The role of perceived pedagogical caring.Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 411–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wentzel, K.R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers and peers.Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 202–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J.S. (1992). The development of achievement task values: a theoretical analysis.Developmental Review, 12, 265–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisbon, Portugal/ Springer Netherlands 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabelle Régner
    • 1
  • Florence Loose
    • 2
  • Florence Dumas
    • 3
  1. 1.CNRSAix-Marseille University and Toulouse UniversityFrance
  2. 2.CNRSClermont-Ferrand UniversityFrance
  3. 3.CNRSAix-Marseille University and Lyon III UniversityFrance

Personalised recommendations