Advertisement

Treating twins as individuals: Maternal educative practices

  • Catherine Tourrette
  • Monique Robin
  • Denise Josse
Risk Groups

Abstract

For twins’ parents, the process of building up each child’s individuality is more complex than for singleton’s parents. The dyadic interaction becomes a triadic situation and the mother has to face the problem of distinguishing one twin from the other without comparing them.

The analysis of mother’s twin care patterns provides highly relevant information on the processes promoting twins’ individualization and maternal adjustment to the triadic situation.

An empirical study illustrates this point of view. It surveys forty parents of twins on their attitudes towards twin rearing and observes parental behaviour in the home to assess consistency between statements of actual practices. Observation and correspondence analysis show that: I) Some types of child care are more conductive to implementing differentiation strategies than others (dress and choice of toys in contrast to bedtime and meals); 2) mothers of twins who are explicit about child rearing practices are generally coherent about putting them into practice; mothers with less explicit views are less inclined to try to individualize their twins; 3) SES and degree of physical resemblance between twins both affect the type of differentiation strategies.

Key words

Mother-twins relations Dayly-twin rearing Individualization Twinning 

La différenciation des jumeaux et les pratiques éducatives des mères

Résumé

Pour les parents de jumeaux, la construction de l’individualité de chaque enfant est un processus plus complexe que pour les parents de non-jumeaux. L’interaction dyadique est transformée en une situation triadique. La mère est confrontée au problème de distinguer chaque enfant de son co-jumeau sans établir de comparaison. L’analyse des pratiques de soins fournit des informations pertinentes sur les mécanismes qui favorisent l’individualisation des jumeaux et sur les ajustements maternels à la situation triadique. Une enquête a été réalisée au domicile de 40 parents de jumeaux à 1 an, avec une observation de leurs comportements et un entretien portant sur leurs principes éducatifs. La concordance entre leurs pratiques et leurs attitudes a été évaluée.

L’observation et l’analyse des correspondances montrent que:-certaines activités quotidiennes sont plus révélatrices des stratégies différenciatrices que d’autres; — les parents qui expriment des principes éducatifs très différenciateurs les mettent en général en pratique, alors que ceux qui sont moins explicites dans les intentions favorisent moins l’individualisation des jumeaux; — enfin, les stratégies de différenciation sont fortement liées simultanément au type de gemellité (mono/dizygotie) et au niveau socio-culturel de la mère.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, M. G., Greenspan, S. I., & Pollin, W. (1976). The effect of parental perceptions on early development in twins.Psychiatry, 30, 65–71.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, M. G., Pollin, W., & Hoffer, A. (1971). Parental birth and infancy factors in infant twin development.American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 33–39.Google Scholar
  3. Benzecri, J. P. (1973).L’analyse des données. Tome 2. L’analyse des correspondances. Paris: Dunod.Google Scholar
  4. Bornstein, M. H., & Ruddy, M. G. (1984). Infant attention and maternal stimulation: Prediction of cognitive and linguistic development in singletons and twins. In H. Bouma and D.G. Bouwhuis (Eds.),Attention and Performance X: Control of Language Processes (pp 433–445). London: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Brill, B., Zack, M., & Nkounkou-Hombessa, E. (1989). Ethno theories of development and education.European Journal of Psychology of Education, 4, 307–318.Google Scholar
  6. Cherro Aguerre M., Blitz, D. D., Korytnicki, M. G. de, Arancibia, M. H. de, Lewi, E. K. de, & Castillo, G. Z. de (1988). Los gemelos o las vicisitudes de un punto de Partida en general doble,Revista de Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica, II, 359–384.Google Scholar
  7. Cibois, P. (1984).L’analyse des données en sociologie. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, D. J., Allen, M. G., Pollin, W., Werner, M., & Dibble, E. (1972). Personality development in twins. Competence in the newborn and preschool periods.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, II, 625–644.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, D. J., Dibble, E. D., & Grawe, J. M. (1977). Parental style: mothers’ and father’s perceptions of their relations with their twin children.Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 445–451.Google Scholar
  10. Dunn, J., & Kendrick, C. (1981). Studying temperament and parent-child interaction: comparison of interview and direct observation.Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development, 415–430.Google Scholar
  11. Frye, D. (1989). Social and Cognitive Development in Infancy.European Journal of Psychology of Education, 4, 129–139.Google Scholar
  12. Gifford, S., Murawski, B., Brazelton, T., & Young, G.C. (1966). Differences in individual development within a pair of identical twins.International Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 47, 261–268.Google Scholar
  13. Goshen-Gottstein, E. R. (1980). The mothering of twins, triplests and quadruplets.Psychiatry, 43, 189–203.Google Scholar
  14. Hwang, C. P. (1978). Mother infant interaction: effects of sex infant on feeding behaviour.Early Human Development, 214, 341–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Josse, D., & Robin, M. (1983). A propos du contenu du langage maternel.Psychiatrie de l’Enfant, 26, 99–140.Google Scholar
  16. Josse, D., & Robin, M. (1987). Deux bébés à la fois: une naissance bien singulière. In W. Pasini,L’après-naissance en copropriété (pp. 73–78). Genève: Médicine et Hygiène.Google Scholar
  17. Josse, D., & Robin, M. (1989). La prénomination des jumeaux: effet de couple, effet de mode?Enfance, in press.Google Scholar
  18. Korner, A. F., Zeanah, C. H., Linden, J., Berkowitz, R. I., Kraemer, M. C., & Agras, W.S. (1985). The relation between neonatal and later activity and temperament.Child Development, 56, 38–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lautrey, J. (1980).Classe sociale, milieu familial et intelligence. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  20. Matheny, A. P., Wilson, R. S., Dolan, A. B., & Krantz, J. Z. (1981). Behavioral contrasts in twinship. Stability and patterns of differences in childhood.Child Development, 52, 579–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Minde, K. K., Perrotta, M., & Corter, C. (1982). The effect of neonatal complication in same sexed premat as their mothers’ preference.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 446–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mittler, P. (1971).The study of twins. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  23. Moss, H. A. (1967). Sex, age and state as determinants of mother-infant interaction.Merril-palmer Quarterly, 13, 19–36.Google Scholar
  24. Papousek, H., & Papousek, M. (1989). Intuitive parenting: aspects related to educational psychology.European Journal of Psychology of Education, 4, 201–210.Google Scholar
  25. Robin, M. (1982). Neonate-mother interaction: tactile contacts in the days following birth.Early Child Development and Care, 9, 221–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Robin, M., & Josse, D. (1984). Maternal language and the development of successive infant identities.Early Child Development and Care, 17, 167–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Robin, M., & Josse, D. (1987). Quelques aspects de la relation mère-enfant la suite d’une naissance gémellaire.Neuropsychiatrie de l’Enfance et de l’Adolescence, 35, 369–377.Google Scholar
  28. Robin, M., Josse, D., & Tourrette, C. (1988a). Early mother-twin interaction.Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae, 37, 151–159.Google Scholar
  29. Robin, M., Josse, D., & Tourrette, C. (1988b). Incidence économique sociale et psychologique d’une naissance de jumeaux sur la vie familiale (submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  30. Tauber, M.A. (1979). Sex differences in parent child interaction styles during a free play session.Child Development, 50, 981–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tourrette, C., Robin, M., & Josse, D. (1988). Les pratiques éducatives des mères de jumeaux: une investigation par l’analyse factorielle des correspondances.Année Psychologique, 88, 545–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Torgersen, A. M. (1981). Genetic factors in temperamental individuality: a longitudinal study of same sexed twins from two months to six years of age.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20, 702–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wilson, R. S., Brown, A. M., & Matheny, A. P. (1971). Emergence and persistence of behavioral differences in twins.Child Development, 42, 1381–1398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Winestine, M. C. (1969). Twinship and psychological differenciation.Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 8, 436–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zazzo, R. (1960).Les Jumeaux: le couple et la personne. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France (2ème dition 1986).Google Scholar
  36. Zazzo, R. (1984).Le paradoxe des jumeaux. Paris: Stock.Google Scholar
  37. Zeanah, C. H., Keener, M. A., Stewart, L., & Andles, T. F. (1985). Prenatal perception of infant personality: a preliminary investigation.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 2, 204–210.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisbon, Portugal/ Springer Netherlands 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catherine Tourrette
    • 1
  • Monique Robin
    • 2
  • Denise Josse
    • 2
  1. 1.Département de PsychologieUniversité de PoitiersPoitiers Cedex
  2. 2.I.N.S.E.R.M., Unité 187ClamartFrance

Personalised recommendations