Applied Magnetic Resonance

, 25:395 | Cite as

Threat localization in QR explosive detection systems

  • H. Robert
  • P. J. Prado


The detection of explosives for the purpose of aviation security is an important task for preventing terrorism acts and smuggling. A number of methods for explosive screening have been developed. For the purpose of aviation security, the inspections are performed on passengers, their carry-on luggage, checked baggage, and cargo containers. An effective explosive detection system should be capable of reporting the type of energetic material, the mass, the object shape and its location within the volume being scanned. Quadrupole resonance (QR) is a mature technique for detecting and classifying explosives concealed in unopened containers. We report recent research on threat localization techniques, aimed to enhance the efficiency of QR-based baggage scanner systems. The methods investigated for threat localization are based on the effect of inhomogeneous static magnetic fields, nonuniform radio-frequency excitation, and the use of spatially selective radio-frequency coils for one- and two-dimensional mapping.


Static Magnetic Field Fringe Field Aviation Security Threat Localization Selective Coil 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Singh S., Singh M.: Signal Process.83, 31–55 (2003)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Steinfeld J.I., Wormhoudt J.: Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.49, 203–232 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Novakoff A.K.. in: Applications of Signal and Image Processing in Explosives Detection Systems (Connelly J.M., Cheung S.M., eds.), pp. 2–12. Bellingham, Wash: SPIE — the International Society for Optical Engineering 1993 (Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 1824)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gozani T. in: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Explosive Detection Technology, pp. 27–55. Atlantic City, N.J.: Federal Aviation Administration 1991.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buess M.L., Garroway A.N., Miller J.B.: Detection of Explosives and Narcotics by Low Power Large Sample Volume NQR, US Patent 5,233,300, 1993.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buess M.L., Garroway A.N., Miller J.B.: Detection of Explosives by NQR, US Patent 5,206,592, 1993.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rommel E., Nickel P., Kimmich R., Pusiol D.: J. Magn. Reson.91, 630 (1990)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matsui S., Kose K., Inouye T.: J. Magn. Reson.88, 186–191 (1990)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ermakov V.L., Kurbanov R.H., Osokin D.Ya., Shagalov V.A.: Appl. Magn. Reson.3, 975 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee Y., Butler L.G.: J. Magn. Reson. A112, 92 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Robert H., Minuzzi A., Pusiol D.: J. Magn. Reson. A118, 189 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Robert H., Pusiol D.: J. Magn. Reson.127, 109–114 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Robert H., Pusiol D.: J. Magn. Reson. A.118, 279–281 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Swaminathan S., Suits B.: J. Magn. Reson.138, 123 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Das T.P., Hahn E.L.: Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy. New York: Academic Press 1958.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cory D.G., Miller J.B., Garroway A.N.: Meas. Sci. Technol.1, 1338–1342 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Morris P.G.: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Medicine and Biology. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1986.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Buess M.L., Garroway A.N., Yesinowski J.B.: Removing the Effects of Acoustic Ringing and Reducing Temperature Effects in Detection of Explosives by NQR, US Patent 05,365,171, 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Robert
    • 1
  • P. J. Prado
    • 1
  1. 1.Quantum MagneticsSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations