Advertisement

International Journal of Hematology

, Volume 76, Supplement 1, pp 286–290 | Cite as

Some hematological problems in Indonesia

  • Ina S. Timan
  • Diana Aulia
  • Djumhana Atmakusuma
  • Aru Sudoyo
  • Endang Windiastuti
  • Agus Kosasih
Hematological Disorders in the Developing Countries

Abstract

Indonesia consist of many island inhabited by many ethnic groups with different social economic condition. As in other parts of the world, anemia is still one of the major health problem in Indonesia. The reported anemia prevalence differs in each area and age groups, ranging from 5.4% in well nourished preschool children to 56.3% in primary school children; and 19% to 62.5% in pregnant women. The causes of anemia mostly reported were nutritional like iron deficiency, abnormal hemoglobin besides other conditions. In Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital as the national referral hospital in Indonesia, in the adults groups, the cause of anemia reported were 14% with iron deficiency, 54% aplastic, 16% hemolytic and 16% other causes. Whereas in the child health department the cause were 29% nutritional deficiency, 31% thalassemia, 10% aplastic, 4% hemolytic and 26% other causes. Thalassemia is quite often reported in Indonesia. In 1955 Lie-Injo first reported the HbE as the most frequently found abnormality among many ethnic groups in Indonesia, ranging from 2.5% to 13.2%. In later studies the prevalence reported varies very much. It was reported as 9.5% in newborns, 22% in pregnant women, and 15.95% to 60% in athletes. The carrier frequency in some areas was between 6–10%, while the pattern of mutation varied widely within each region. Hemophilia cases in Indonesia is still not diagnosed adequetely, only 530 cases were reported. The problems were lack of diagnostic laboratories and awareness. As many as 56.9% of the hemophilia patients who received cryoprecipitate were reported positive with HCV antibody. Hematological malignancy is now also became an increasing problem in Indonesia, in child health department the prevalence of leukemia was 57%, and lymphoma 13% among other malignancies. In National Cancer hospital, the prevalence leukemia as diagnosed using morphology and flowcytometry, were 51.4% AML, 19.7% B-ALL, 14.6% T-ALL, 4.5% preB-ALL, with 9.8% cases with co expression, and 30% other malignancies. Due to geographical situation, economic condition and lack of diagnostic laboratory facility many abnormalities were unable to be diagnosed properly.

Keywords

Pregnant Woman Anemia Malaria Iron Deficiency Aplastic Anemia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Indonesian Health Profile 2000. Central Health Data, Indonesian Ministry of Health.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tambunan LK. Anemia in Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia- Cipto mangunkusumo Hospital. Presented in Anemia Symposia. Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, 18th April 1995, Jakarta.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gatot D. Anemia in Child Health Department, Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia- Cipto mangunkusumo Hospital. Presented in Anemia Symposia. Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, 18th April 1995, Jakarta.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sayogo S, Margono S, Suyardi S, Dilon DHS, Ismid IS. Anemia Study in primary school children.J Indon Med Assoc. 1995;45:592–598.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sayogo S. Anemia in the community.J Indon Med Assoc. 1995;45:722–724.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bakta IM, Widjana DP, Sutisna P. The Prevalence of Anemia in the rural population of Bali.J Indon Med Assoc. 1998; 48:3–5.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Utomo B. The impact of monetary crisis and economy to the health and nutritional status of Children.J Med Trisakti Univ. 1998;17:1–17.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Poppele J, Sumarto S, Pritchet L. Social impact of the Indonesian Crisis: New Data and Policy Implication. Social Monitoring and Early Response Unit. (Unpublished) 1998.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schultink W, Pritasari P, Susilowati D, Wasito E. Past trends in nutritional status of urban children in south east asia and present changes in Indonesia related to the socio-economic crisis.S A J Clin Nutr. 2000:13:1–14.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Timan IS, Tatsumi N, Funahara Y, Aulia D, Margono S, Sayogo S, Bunjaratvej A, Fucharoen S, Asada Y, Sumiyoshi A. Anemia in Indonesian School children.ICMR Annals. 2000;20:223–230.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wishnuwardhani SD. Anemia in Pregnancy. Presented in Anemia Symposia. Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, 18th April 1995, Jakarta.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Atmakusuma D. Anemia in women. Presented in Anemia Symposia. Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, 18th April 1995, Jakarta.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Suhartono, Hendratno S, Satoto, Kartini A. The Risk factors of worm infections in primary school children in Karang Anyar area.M Med Indonesiana. 1998;33:129–136.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sukartini N. Neonatal blood cord screening for hemoglobinopathi in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Isoelectric focusing as an alternative test. Thesis. Clinical Pathology Dept. Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, 1997, Jakarta.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sofro AS. Abnormal hemoglobin in Indonesia.Medika. 1983; 10:848–852.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Setianingsih I, Williamson R, Marzuki S, Harahap A, Tamam M, Forrest S. Molecular basis of thalassemia in Indonesia: Application to prenatal diagnosis.Molecular Diagnosis. 1998; 3:11–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thalassemia Center. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Jakarta. (unpublish data).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Timan IS, Sutanto I, Pribadi W, Hidayat S. Ovalocytosis and malaria in Tipuka, Irian Jaya. Presented in the National Congress of Clinical Pathology, 1993, Yogyakarta.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hemofilia Center Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Jakarta. (unpublish data).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sutaryo. Problems in the management of leukemia in Indonesia. Presented in [Abstract].Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moeslichan MZ. Epidemiologic study on childhood cancer in Jakarta.Indoneisan J Oncology. 1977;8:11–13.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kosasih A. Immunophenotyping of Acute Leukemia. Presented at Leukemia Update Seminar, Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, March 2001, Jakarta.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kresno SB, Kosasih A, Muthalib A, Atmakusuma D, Harijanto SH. Immunophenotyping on leukemia and its clinical significance. Presented in The National Congress on Hematology and Blood Transfusion, August 2001, Semarang.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Miranthi LMM. Hematologic and cytochemical findings in acute leukemia 2000–2001 in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. Thesis. Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, Jakarta, 2002.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Hematology 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ina S. Timan
    • 1
  • Diana Aulia
    • 1
  • Djumhana Atmakusuma
    • 2
  • Aru Sudoyo
    • 2
  • Endang Windiastuti
    • 3
  • Agus Kosasih
    • 4
  1. 1.Clinical Pathology DeptFaculty of Medicine University of Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo HospitalJakarta
  2. 2.Hematology Division, Internal Medicine Dept.Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo HospitalJakarta
  3. 3.Child Health Dept.Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia-Cipto Mangunkusumo HospitalJakarta
  4. 4.Clinical Pathology DeptNational Cancer HospitalJakarta

Personalised recommendations