, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 451–457 | Cite as

A comparative study of surface energy fluxes of three communities (Phragmites australis, Scirpus acutus, and open water) in a prairie wetland ecosystem

  • George G. Burba
  • Shashi B. Verma
  • Joon Kim


Components of the surface energy balance were measured using the Bowen ratio-energy balance method in three different communities (Phragmites australis, Scirpus acutus, and open water) in a wetland located in north-central Nebraska during the growing season of 1994. During daytime, the heat storage term (S) was a considerably larger sink of energy in open water as compared to the vegetated communities (Phragmites andScirpus). During nighttime, S was a significant source of energy in all three communities. As compared to the evapotranspiration (ET) fromPhragmites andScirpus, the evaporation (E) from open water (averaged over the measurement period) was about 25% smaller during daytime and three times larger during the night. The diurnal pattern of ET inPhragmites andScirpus generally followed that of Rn. The diurnal pattern of the open water E, however, did not follow Rn; rather, it seemed to depend on thermal stability conditions and air dryness. For the overall measurement period, the daily integrated (24-hour) evaporation from the open water area was 8% more than the evapotranspiration from thePhragmites-dominated part of the wetland and 17% more than the evapotranspiration from theScirpus-dominated part of the wetland.

Key Words

wetland energy budget energy flux evaporation evapotranspiration reedgrass bulrush 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Anderson, M. G. and S. B. Idso. 1987. Surface geometry and stomatal conductance effects on evaporation from aquatic macrophytes. Water Resources Research 23:1037–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burba, G. G., S. B. Verma, and J. Kim. 1998. Surface energy fluxes of an open water area in a mid-latitude prairie wetland. Boundary-Layer Meteorology (in press).Google Scholar
  3. Dennison, M. S. and J. F. Berry. 1989. Wetlands. Guide to Science, Law, and Technology, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ, USA.Google Scholar
  4. Fritschen, L. J. and L. W. Gay. 1979. Environmental Instrumentation. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Hammer, D. A.. 1989. Creating freshwater wetlands. p. 151–153. In D. A. Hammer (ed.) Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Municipal, Industrial, and Agricultural. Lewis Publishers Inc., Boca Raton, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  6. Hartman, R. K. and L. W. Gay. 1981. Improvements in the design and calibration of temperature measurement system. Proceedings of the 15th Conference on Agricultural and Forest Meteorology: 209–210.Google Scholar
  7. Imberer, J. 1985. Thermal characteristic of standing waters: an illustration of dynamic processes. p. 7–30. In B. R. Davis and R. D. Wamsley (eds.) Perspectives in Southern Hemisphere Limnology. Dr. W. Junk Publishers. Dordrecht, Germany.Google Scholar
  8. Jones, M. B. and F. M. Muthury. 1984. The diurnal course of plant water potential, stomatal conductance and transpiration in a papyrus (Cyperus papyrus L.) canopy. Oecologia 63:252–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kadlec, R. 1989. Hydrologic factors in wetland water treatment systems. p. 21–40. In D. A. Hammer (ed.) Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Municipal, Industrial, and Agricultural. Lewis Publishers Inc., Boca Raton, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  10. Lafleur, P. M. 1990. Evapotranspiration from sedge-dominated wetland surfaces. Aquatic Botany 37:341–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Leaf, G. 1989. Ecological Atlas of the World. Lewis Publishers Inc., Boca Raton, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  12. Norman, R., L. Finger, D. Titus, and R. Gearheart. 1993. Review of Wetland Evapotranspiration Literature. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  13. Parkhurst, R. S., T. C. Winter, D. O. Rosenberry, and A. Sturrock. 1998. Evaporation from a small prairie wetland in the Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota—an energy-budget study. Wetlands 18:272–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Priban, K. and J. P. Ondok. 1985. Heat balance components and evapotranspiration from a sedge-grass marsh. Folia Geobotanica Et Phytotaxonomica 20:41–56.Google Scholar
  15. Rao, A. S. 1988. Evapotranspiration rates ofEichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms,Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchess andNymphaea lotus (L.) Willd. Linn. in a humid tropical climate. Aquatic Botany 30:215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rijks, D. A. 1969. Evaporation from a papyrus swamp. Quaternary Journal of Royal Meteorological Society 95:643–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rose, C. W. and A. L. Chapman. 1968. A physical analysis of diurnal temperature regimes in clear and turbid water layers: a problem in rice culture. Agricultural Meteorology 5:391–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Roulet, N. 1991. Methane flux from drained northern peatlands, effect of a persistent water table lowering on flux. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 7:749–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Smid, P. 1975. Evaporation from a reedswamp. Journal of Ecology 63:299–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Snyder, R. L. and C. E. Boyd. 1987. Evapotranspiration byEichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms andTypha latifolia L. Aquatic Botany 27:217–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Stannard, D. I. and D. O. Rosenberry. 1991. A comparison of shortterm measurements of lake evaporation using eddy correlation and energy budget methods. Journal of Hydrology 122:15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Van der Weert, R. and G. E. Kamerling. 1974. Evapotranspiration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Journal of Hydrology 22:201–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Vanyarkho, O. 1996. Seasonal changes in vegetative characteristics and gas exchange ofPhragmites australis andScirpus acutus in mid-latitude prairie wetland ecosystem. M.S. Thesis. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE, USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of Wetland Scientists 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • George G. Burba
    • 1
  • Shashi B. Verma
    • 1
  • Joon Kim
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Natural Resource Sciences Center for Laser-Analytical Studies of Trace Gas DynamicsUniversity of NebraskaLincolnUSA
  2. 2.Global Environment Laboratory Department of Atmospheric SciencesYonsei UniversitySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations