, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 283–287 | Cite as

Distribution of the invasive reedPhragmites australis relative to sediment depth in a created wetland

  • Christopher R. Pyke
  • Kirk J. Havens


This study collected new data on sediment thickness and distribution and integrated it with existing data on the distribution of plant species within a small (0.5 ha) created, tidal salt marsh in Langley, Virginia, USA. The presence of the reedPhragmites australis was found to be inversely correlated with sediment accumulation on the marsh surface. Sediment-deficient areas seem at a higher risk for invasion byP. australis and subsequent loss of designed marsh habitat. The results indicate that areas of low sediment accumulation may be used as a proxy measure for areas vulnerable to invasion. These areas can be easily delimited both in the field and on aerial photography.

Key Words

created tidal marsh sediment Phragmites australis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Barnard, T.A. Jr. and P.A. Mason. 1990. Compensatory mitigation within the tidal wetlands of Virginia. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA, USA. Technical Report 90–7.Google Scholar
  2. Blanch, S.J. and M.A. Brock. 1994. Effects of grazing and depth on two wetland plant species. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 45(8):1387–1394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cross, D.H. and K.L. Fleming. 1989. Control of Phragmites or Common Reed. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. USA. Fish and Wildlife Leaflet 13.4.12.Google Scholar
  4. Hara, T., J. Van der Toorn, and J. H. Mook. 1993. Growth dynamics and size structure of shoots ofPhragmites australis, a clonal plant. Journal of Ecology 81:47–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Haslam, S.M. 1969. Stem types ofPhragmites communis Trin. Annuals of Botany 33:127–131.Google Scholar
  6. Haslam, S.M. 1971. Community regulation inPhragmites communis Trin. II. Mixed Stands. Journal of Ecology 59:75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Havens, K. J., W.I. Priest III. and H. Berquist 1997. Invèstigation and long-term monitoring ofPhragmites australis within Virginia’s created wetland sites. Environmental Management 21:599–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Helpings, S.E. and J.L. Gallagher. 1992. The effects of salinity and flooding onPhragmites australis. Journal of Applied Ecology 29:41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jones, W.L. and W.C. Lehman. 1987. Phragmites control and revegetation following the acrial application of glyphosate in Delaware. p. 185–199.In W.R. Witman and W.H. Meredith (eds.) Waterfowl and Wetlands Symposium. Delaware Coastal Management Program, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Dover, DE, USA.Google Scholar
  10. Kludze, H. K. and R. D. Delaune. 1996. Soil redox intensity effects on oxygen exchange and growth of cattail and sawgrass. Soil Science Society of America Journal 60:616–621.Google Scholar
  11. Marks, M., Lapin, B., and J. Randall. 1994.Phragmites australis (P. communis): Threats, management, and monitoring, Natural Areas Journal 14:285–294.Google Scholar
  12. Sanchez, J. M., X.L. Otero, and J. Izco. 1998. Relationships between vegetation and environmental characteristics in a salt-marsh system on the coast of Northeastern Spain. Plant Ecology 135:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Silberhorn, G. 1991. Reed grass Phragmites. Technical Report Wetland Flora. Wetlands Program, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point VA, USA.Google Scholar
  14. Templer, P., S. Findlay, and C. Wigand. 1998. Sediment chemistry associated with native and non-native emergent macrophytes of a Hudson marsh ecosystem. Wetlands 18:70–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Weisner, S.E.B. 1996. Effects of an organic sediment on performance of youngPhragmites australis clones at different water depth treatments. Hydrobiologia 330:189–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Weisner, S.E.B. and W. Graneli. 1989. Influence of substrate conditions on the growth ofPhragmites australis after a reduction in oxygen transport to below-ground parts. Aquatic Botany 35:71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of Wetland Scientists 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyCollege of William and MaryWilliamsburgUSA
  2. 2.Wetlands Program Department of Resource Management and PolicyVirginia Institute of Marine ScienceGloucester PointUSA

Personalised recommendations