, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 191–208 | Cite as

Evaluation of the flora and fauna of aSpartina alterniflora marsh established on dredged material in Winyah Bay, South Carolina

  • Mark W. LaSalle
  • Mary C. Landin
  • Jerre G. Sims


Approximately 35 hectares ofSpartina alterniflora marsh has, over a 14-year period, developed naturally on unconfined dredged material placed within the intertidal zone of Winyah Bay, South Carolina. The above-and below-ground vegetative structure, benthic macrofauna, and resident fish and shellfish assemblages of two varying-aged zones (4 and 8 years) of this marsh were evaluated and compared in September 1988. Vegetative structure (stem height, density, percent cover, and biomass) in both zones was within the range reported for natural sites, with a trend toward greater below-ground development with age. The macrofaunal assemblages of both zones were similar in both species composition and numbers of species (17–21 species), with oligochaetes and polychaetes dominating both assemblages. Overall density of macrofauna in the 8-year-old zone (19,943 individuals per m2) was significantly greater than that in the 4-year-old zone (4,628 individuals per m2). Differences between zones (particularly the presence of large-bodied molluscs in the older site) seemed to reflect age. The fish and shellfish assemblage collected from the younger site was dominated byFundulus heteroclitus andPalaemonetes pugio. Gut contents ofF. heteroclitus included a variety of marsh-surface prey, similar to that reported elsewhere. Overall, both zones seemed to represent well established, viable, low intertidal marsh habitat.

Key Words

Dredged material Spartina alterniflora manmade marsh above/below-ground vegetation macrofauna fishes and shellfishes 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Baker-Dittus, A. M. 1978. Foraging patterns of three sympatric killifish. Copeia 1978:383–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berger, W. H., and F. L. Parker 1970. Diversity of planktonic Foraminifera in deep-sea sediments. Science 168:1345–1347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bishop, T. D., and C. T. Hackney 1987. A comparative study of the molluse communities of two oligohaline intertidal marshes: spatial and temporal distribution of their abundance and biomass. Estuaries 10:141–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bray, J. R., and C. T. Curtis 1957. An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 27:325–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Breder, C. M. 1960. Design for a fry trap. Zoologica 45:155–160.Google Scholar
  6. Buchanan, J. B., and J. M. Kain. 1971. Measurement of the physical and chemical environment. p. 30–58.In N. A. Holme and A. D. McIntyre (eds.) Methods for the Study of Marine Benthos. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  7. Cammen, L. M. 1976. Macroinvertebrate colonization ofSpartina marshes artificially established on dredge spoil. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Sciences 4:357–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fell, P.E., N.C. Olmstead, E. Carlson, W. Jacob, D. Hitchcock, and G. Silber. 1982. Distribution and abundance of macroinvertebrates on certain Connecticut tidal marshes, with emphasis on dominant, molluses. Estuaries 5:234–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Folk, R. L. 1968. Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. Hemphill Publishing Company, Austin, TX, USA.Google Scholar
  10. Fox, R. S., and E. E. Ruppert. 1985. Shallow-Water Marine Benthic Macroinvertebrates of South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC USA.Google Scholar
  11. Good, R., N. Good, and B. Frasco 1982. A review of primary production and decomposition dynamics of the belowground marsh component. p. 139–157.In V. S. Kennedy (ed.) Estuarine Comparisons. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  12. Hackney, C. T., and R. F. Ganucheau, 1989. A new species ofCyathura (Isopoda, Anthuridae) from a high intertidal marsh in North Carolina, U.S.A.. Crustaceana 57:304–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Heard, R. W. 1982. Guide to common tidal marsh invertebrates of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium, Biloxi, MS, USA.Google Scholar
  14. Hellawell, J. M., and R. Abel. 1971. A rapid volumetric method for the analysis of the food of fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 3:29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kneib, R. T. 1984. Patterns of invertebrate distribution and abundance in the intertidal salt marsh: causes and questions. Estuaries 7:392–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kneib, R. T., and A. E. Stiven. 1978. Growth, reproduction, and feeding ofFundulus heteroclitus (L.) on a North Carolina salt marsh. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 31:121–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. LaSalle, M. W., and T. D. Bishop 1987. Seasonal abundance of aquatic Diptera in two oligohaline tidal marshes in Mississippi. Estuaries 10:303–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Osenga, G. A., and B. C. Coull 1983.Spartina alterniflora Loisel root structure and meiofaunal abundance. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 67:221–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pfeiffer, W. J., and R. G. Wiegert 1981. Grazers onSpartina and their predators. p. 87–112.In L. R. Pomeroy and R. G. Wiegert (eds.) Ecology of a Salt Marsh. Ecological Studies (38). Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  20. Rader, D. N. 1984. Salt-marsh benthic invertebrates: small-scale patterns of distribution and abundance. Estuaries 7:413–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rozas, L. P., and W. E. Odum. 1987. Use of tidal freshwater marshes by fishes and macrofaunal crustaceans along a marsh stream-order gradient. Estuaries 10:36–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rozas, L.P., C. C. McIvor, and W. E. Odum 1988. Intertidal rivulets and creckbanks: corridors between tidal creeks and marshes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 47:303–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sargent, W. B. and P. R. Carlson, Jr. 1987. The utility of Breder traps for sampling mangrove and high marsh fish assemblages. p. 194–205.In F. J. Webb (ed.) Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Conference on Wetlands Restoration and Creation. Hillsborough Community College, Tampa, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  24. Southwood, T. R. E. 1978. Ecological Methods with Particular Reference to the Study of Insect Populations. 2nd ed. Chapman and Hall, London, UK.Google Scholar
  25. Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie 1960. Principles and Procedures of Statistics with Special Reference to the Biological Sciences. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  26. Subrahmanyam, C. B., W. L. Kruczynski, and S. H. Drake 1976. Studies on the animal communities in two north Florida salt marshes. Part II. Macroinvertebrate communities. Bulletin Marine Sciences 26:172–195.Google Scholar
  27. Teal, J. M. 1958. Distribution of fiddler crabs in Georgia salt marshes. Ecology 39:185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Teal, J. M. 1962. Energy flow in the salt marsh ecosystem of Georgia. Ecology 43:214–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tumer, R. E. 1976. Geographic variations in salt marsh macrophyte production: a review. Contributions in Marine Science 20:47–68.Google Scholar
  30. Schubauer, J. P., and C. S. Hopkinson. 1984. Above- and belowground emergent macrophyte production and tumover in a coastal marsh ecosystem, Georgia. Limnology and Oceanography 29:1052–1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wenner, E. L., and H. R. Beatty. 1988. Macrobenthic communities from wetland impoundments and adjacent open marsh habitats in South Carolina. Estuaries 11:29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zar, J. H. 1984. Biostatistical Analysis. 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of Wetland Scientists 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark W. LaSalle
    • 1
  • Mary C. Landin
    • 2
  • Jerre G. Sims
    • 2
  1. 1.Coastal Research and Extension CenterMississippi State UniversityBiloxi
  2. 2.Environmental LaboratoryU.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment StationVicksburg

Personalised recommendations