A comparison of physicochemical variables across plant zones in a mangal/salt marsh community in Louisiana
- 82 Downloads
Three vegetation zones were delineated in a mangal / salt marsh community at Bay Champagne, Louisiana — a zone dominated byAvicennia germinans adjacent to the bay, an inland zone dominated bySpartina alterniflora, and a transition zone between the two containing both species. Parallel transects that intersected each zone were established perpendicular to the shore of the bay and sampled to determine if these zones differed on the basis of soil texture, elevation, redox potential, and selected interstitial water variables. Redox potential and interstitial water sulfide, ammonium, P, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, pH, and salinity were measured 5 times during the year to account for seasonal variation.
Factor analysis identified five factors, accounting for 80.6% of the variation in the data. These factors were interpreted as representing seawater, sulfide, nitrogen/phosphorus, Eh, and copper variables. Factor scores in theAvicennia zone were significantly different than in the other zones for the salinity and sulfide factors, with higher salinity scores and lower sulfide scores.
Analysis of variance revealed highly significant zone differences for most individual variables. TheAvicennia zone was characterized by the highest relative elevation and soil bulk density. Higher concentrations of ions associated with sea water, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, occurred in theAvicennia zone, which also caused interstitial water salinity to be higher in that zone.
The transition andSpartina zones were more biochemically reduced than theAvicennia zone, as shown by lower redox potential measurements, higher sulfide concentrations, and higher sulfide factor scores in the former. Iron and manganese were lower in the more reduced zones, probably due to precipitation with sulfide. The transition andSpartina zones only differed in interstitial water potassium and sulfide and relative elevation, with some additional seasonal differences in other variables. TheSpartina zone had a lower elevation and usually higher sulfide concentrations than the transition zone. We hypothesize that the relatively high sulfide and lower elevation of theSpartina zone may limit the establishment ofAvicennia propagules there.
Key WordsAvicennia germinans Spartina alterniflora distribution sulfide elevation redox potential Louisiana species zonation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Brannon, J.M. 1973. Seasonal variations of nutrients and physicochemical properties in the salt marsh soils of Barataria Bay, Louisiana. Unpublished M. Sc. Thesis, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.Google Scholar
- Carlson, P.R. 1983. Pore water chemistry of an overwash mangrove island. Florida Scientist 46:239–248.Google Scholar
- Chapman, V.J. 1976. Mangrove Vegetation. J. Cramer Publishers, Vaduz, Liechtenstein.Google Scholar
- Chapman, V.J. 1974. Salt Marshes and Salt Deserts of the World. Interscience Publishers, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
- Clarke, L.D. and N.J. Hannon. 1969. The mangrove swamp and salt marsh communities of the Sydney District II. The holocoenotic complex with particular reference to physiograhy. Journal of Ecology 59:535–553.Google Scholar
- Davis, Jr. J.H. 1940. The ecology and geologic role of mangroves in Florida. Papers from Tortugas Laboratory 32:304–412.Google Scholar
- Dawes, C.J. 1981. Marine Botany John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
- Dillon, W.R. and M. Goldstein. 1984. Multivariate Analysis 587 pp. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
- Feijtel, T.C. 1986. Biogeochemical cycling of metals in Barataria Basin. Ph. D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.Google Scholar
- Gambrell, R.P. and W.H. Patrick, Jr. 1978. Chemical and microbiological properties of anaerobic soils and sediments. p. 375–423.In D.D. Hook and R.M.M. Crawford (eds.) Plant Life in Anaerobic Environments. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc. Ann Arbor, MI, USA.Google Scholar
- Giblin, A. E. and R.W. Howarth. 1984. Porewater evidence for a dynamic sedimentary iron cycle in salt marshes. Limnology and Oceanography 29:47–63.Google Scholar
- Gu, D., N. Iricanin, and J.H. Trefry. 1987. The geochemistry of interstitial water for a sediment core from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Florida Scientist 50:99–110.Google Scholar
- Hausenbuiller, R.L. 1972. Soil Science Principles and Practices. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA, USA.Google Scholar
- Howarth, R.W. and A. Giblin. 1983. Sulfate reduction in the salt marshes of Sapelo Island, Georgia. Limnology and Oceanography 28:70–82.Google Scholar
- Johnston, S.A., Jr. 1983. Preliminary report onAvicennia germinans located on Isle de Chien (Dog Island), Franklin Country Florida. Tropical Ecology 24:13–18.Google Scholar
- Kangas, P.C. and A. E. Lugo. 1990. The distribution of mangroves and saltmarsh in Florida. Tropical Ecology 31:32–39.Google Scholar
- Lazar Research Laboratories, Inc. 1986. Measurements using ISM-146 Micro Ion sensing electrode. Los Angeles, CA, USA.Google Scholar
- Lugo, A.E. and C.P. Zucca. 1977. The impact of low temperature stress on mangrove structure and growth. Tropical Ecology 18:149–161.Google Scholar
- McMillan, C. and C.L. Sherrod. 1986. The chilling tolerance of black mangrove,Avicennia germinans, from the Gulf of Mexico coast of Texas, Louisiana and Florida, Contributions in Marine Science 29:9–16.Google Scholar
- Mendelssohn, I.A., K.L. McKee, and M.T. Postek. 1982. Sublethal stresses controllingSpartina alterniflora productivity. p. 223–242.In B. Gopal, R. E. Tumer, R. G. Wetzel, and D. F. Whigham (eds.) Wetlands: Ecology and Management, Proceedings of the First International Wetlands Conference, New Delhi, India. National Institute of Ecology, Jaipur, and International Scientific Publications, Jaipur, India.Google Scholar
- Reimold, R.J. 1972. The movement of phosphorus through the salt marsh cord grassSpartina alterniflora Loisel. Limnology and Oceanography 17:606–611.Google Scholar
- SAS User’s Guide: Statistics. 1985 Version 5 Edition, SAS Institute, Inc. Cary, NC, USA.Google Scholar
- Sherrod, C.L., D.L. Hockaday, and C. McMillan. 1986. Survival of red mangrove,Rhizophora mangle, on the Gulf of Mexico coast of Texas. Contributions in Marine Science 29:27–36.Google Scholar
- Snedaker, S.C. 1982. Mangrove species zonation: why? p. 111–125.In D.N. Sen and K.S. Rajpurohit (eds.) Tasks for Vegetation Science, Volume 2. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
- Tabachnick, B.G. and L.S. Fidell. 1983. Using Multivariate Statistics. Harper and Row, Publshers, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
- Tchemia, P. 1980. Descriptive Regional Oceanography. Pergamon Press, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
- USDA. 1984. Soil Survey Laboratory Methods and Procedures for Collecting Soil Samples. Soil Survey Staff, Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 1, U.S. Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D. C., USA.Google Scholar
- US EPA, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Office of Research and Development. 1979. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes. Cincinnati, OH, USA.Google Scholar
- Williams, T.R., J.B. Van Doren, B.R. Smith, S.W. McElvany, and H. Zink. 1986. ICP analysis of biological samples. American Laboratory 18:52–57.Google Scholar