, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 285–289 | Cite as

Chironomidae (Diptera) and vegetation in a created wetland and implications for sampling

  • William J. Streever
  • David L. Evans
  • Chris M. Keenan
  • Thomas L. Crisman


Although invertebrate communities are used in the evaluation of created freshwater wetlands, spatial patterns of invertebrate community structure are frequently ignored. Invertebrate distributions are generally associated with plant community distribution in natural aquatic ecosystems. In this study, 180 core samples were collected to examine associations between chironomid (Diptera) genera and emergent vegetation communities in a single created freshwater herbaceous wetland in central Florida. Three of the five common genera were significantly more abundant (p<0.05, Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test) in areas with greater than 50% cover by emergent vegetation than in open water, but no differences were found between areas dominated byPontederia cordata and areas dominated by mixed emergent vegetation. Samples from an area of open water and an area with over 80% cover byP. cordata showed significant differences in abundances of all common chironomid genera (P<0.05, Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test). Results suggest that sampling designs for studies comparing benthic invertebrate communities from natural and created wetlands should consider the possible associations between vegetation and invertebrate communities.

Key Words

Chironomidae created wetland emergent vegetation invertebrate sampling 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Broome, S.W., E.D. Seneca, and W.W. Woodhouse, Jr. 1986. Long-term growth and development of transplants of the salt marsh grassSpartina alterniflora. Estuaries 9:63–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bryden, R.R. 1952. Ecology ofPelmatohydra oligactis in Kirkpatricks Lake, Tennessee. Ecological Monographs 22:45–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Calow, P. 1973. Gastropod associations within Malham Tarn, Yorkshire. Freshwater Biology 3:521–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheal, F., J.A. Davis, J.E. Growns, J.S. Bradley, and F.H. Whittles. 1993. The influence of sampling method on the classification of wetland macroinvertebrate communities. Hydrobiologia 257:47–56.Google Scholar
  5. Clifford, H.T. and W. Stephenson. 1975. An Introduction to Numerical Classification. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  6. Craft, C.B., S.W. Broome, and E.D. Seneca. 1988. Nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon pools in natural and transplanted marsh soil. Estuaries 11:272–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cranston, P.S., D.R. Oliver, and O.A. Saether. 1983. The larvae of Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the holarctic region—Keys and diagnoses. p. 149–292.In T. Wiederholm (ed.) Chironomidae of the Holarctic Region, Keys and Diagnoses, Part I-Larvae. Borgstroms Tryckeri AB, Motala, Sweden.Google Scholar
  8. Edmondson, W.T. 1944. Ecological studies of sessile rotiferia. Part I. Factors affecting distribution. Ecological Monographs 14:33–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Epler, J.H. 1992. Identification Manual for the Larval Chironomidac (Diptera) of Florida. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Tallahassee, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  10. Erwin, K.L. 1988. Agrico Fort Green Reclamation Project, Sixth Annual Report. Agrico Mining Company, Mulberry, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  11. Erwin, K.L. 1990. Wetland evaluation for restoration and creation. p. 429–449.In J.A. Kusler and M.E. Kentula (eds.) Wetland Creation. and Restoration, The Status of the Science. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  12. Fittkau, E.J. and S.S. Roback. 1983. The larvae of Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the holarctic region-Keys and diagnoses. p. 33–112.In T. Wiederholm (ed.) Chironomidae of the Holarctic Region, Keys and Diagnoses, Part I-Larvae. Borgstroms Tryckeri AB, Motala, Sweden.Google Scholar
  13. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 1994. The Biological Success of Created Marshes in Central Florida. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  14. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation. 1983. Permit Number 250627469. Tallahassee, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  15. Griffiths, D. 1973. The structure of an acid moorland pond community. Journal of Animal Ecology 42:263–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Henson, E.B. 1988. Macro-invertebrate associations in a marsh ecosystem. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung fuer Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 23:1049–1056.Google Scholar
  17. Hurlbert, S.H. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs 54:187–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kentula, M.E., R.P. Brooks, S.E. Gwin, C.C. Holland, A.D. Sherman, and J.C. Sifneos. 1993. An Approach to Improving Decision Making in Wetland Restoration and Creation. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  19. Krecker, F.H. 1939. A comparative study of the animal population of certain submerged aquatic plants. Ecology 20:553–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Langis, R., M. Zalejko, and J.B. Zedler. 1991. Nitrogen assessments in a constructed and a natural salt marsh of San Diego Bay. Ecological Applications 1:40–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lindau, C.W. and L.R. Hossner. 1981. Substrate characterization of an experimental marsh and three natural marshes. Soil Science Society of America Journal 45:1171–1176.Google Scholar
  22. Macan, T.T. 1965. The fauna in the vegetation of a moorland fishpond. Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie 61:273–310.Google Scholar
  23. McLachlan, A.J. 1969. The effect of aquatic macrophytes on the variety and abundance of benthic fauna in a newly created lake in the tropics (Lake Kariba). Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie 66:212–231.Google Scholar
  24. Minello, T.J. and R.J. Zimmerman. 1992. Utilization of natural and transplanted Texas salt marshes by fish and decapod crustaceans. Marine Ecology Progress Series 90:273–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Murkin, H.R. and J.A. Kadlec. 1986. Responses by benthic macroin vertebrates to prolonged flooding of marsh habitat. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64:65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pinder, L.C.V. 1983. The larvae of Chironomidae (Diptera) of the Holarctic region—Introduction. p. 7–11.In T. Wiederholm (ed.) Chironomidae of the Holarctic Region, Keys and Diagnoses, Part I-Larvae. Borgstroms Tryckeri AB, Motala, Sweden.Google Scholar
  27. Pinder, L.C.V. and F. Reiss. 1983. The larvae of Chironomidae (Diptera:Chironomidae) of the holarctic region-Keys and diagnoses. p. 293–436.In T. Wiederholm (ed.) Chironomidae of the Holarctic Region, Keys and Diagnoses, Part 1-Larvae. Borgstroms Tryckeri AB, Sweden.Google Scholar
  28. Pip, E. 1978. A survey of the ecology and composition of submerged aquatic snail-plant communities. Canadian Journal of Zoology 56:2263–2279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pip, E. and J.M. Stewart. 1976. The dynamics of two aquatic plantsnail associations. Canadian Journal of Zoology 54:1192–1205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rosine, W. N. 1955. The distribution of invertebrates on submerged aquatic plant surfaces in Muskee Lake, Colorado. Ecology 36:308–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sacco, J.N., E.D. Seneca, and T.R. Wentworth. 1994. Infaunal community development of artificially established salt marshes in North Carolina. Estuaries 17:489–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. SAS Institute Inc. 1988. SAS/STATO User’s Guide, Release 6.03 Edition. Sas Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.Google Scholar
  33. Smyly, W.J.P. 1957. Distribution and seasonal abundance of Entomostraca in moorland ponds near Windermere. Hydrobiologia 11:59–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Streever, W.J. and S.A. Bloom. 1993. The self-similarity curve: A new method of determining the sampling effort required to characterize communities. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 8:401–403.Google Scholar
  35. Streever, W.J. and T.L. Crisman. 1993a. A comparison of fish populations from natural and constructed freshwater marshes in central Florida. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 8:149–153.Google Scholar
  36. Streever, W.J. and T.L. Crisman. 1993b. A preliminary comparison of meiobenthic cladoceran assemblages in natural and constructed wetlands in central Florida. Wetlands 13:229–336.Google Scholar
  37. Streever, W.J. and K.M. Portier. 1994. A computer program to assist with sampling design in the comparison of natural and constructed wetlands. Wetlands 14:199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Whittaker, R.H. 1972. Evolution and measurement of species diversity. Taxon 21:213–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wrubleski, D.A. and D.M. Rosenberg. 1990. The chironomidae (diptera) of Bone Pile Pond, Delta Marsh, Manitoba, Canada. Wetlands 10:243–275.Google Scholar
  40. Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA.Google Scholar
  41. Zedler, J.B. and R. Langis. 1991. Comparison of constructed and natural salt marshes of San Diego Bay. Restoration and Management Notes 9:21–25.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of Wetland Scientists 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • William J. Streever
    • 1
  • David L. Evans
    • 2
  • Chris M. Keenan
    • 3
  • Thomas L. Crisman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of NewcastleNew South WalesAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Engineering SciencesUniversity of FloridaGainesville
  3. 3.Department of Environmental ProtectionBureau of Mine ReclamationTallahassee

Personalised recommendations