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Voorkomen van recidive bij geweldsdelinquenten: wat werkt

  • Corine de Ruiter
  • Violaine C. Veen
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Samenvatting

De prevalentie van geweldsdelicten in Nederland laat de afgelopen decennia een duidelijke stijging zien. Het voorkomen van recidive bij deze groep daders is dan ook een beleidsprioriteit. In de loop der jaren zijn behandelinterventies voor geweldplegers ontwikkeld, zoals Aggression Replacement Training en Anger Management. Uit meta-analyses naar de effectiviteit van cognitief-gedragstherapeutische interventies voor geweldplegers blijkt dat deze een gemiddelde effectgrootte van rond .80 weten te bereiken, wat als een groot effect wordt beschouwd. Effectieve interventies voldoen aan de principes van de psychologie van crimineel gedrag, zoals geformuleerd door Andrews en Bonta. Centraal in dit model staan het risico- , behoefte- en responsiviteitsprincipe. Dit houdt in dat op gedragsverandering gerichte interventies moeten worden aangewend bij matig- tot hoog-risico delinquenten; dat de interventie gericht dient te zijn op verandering van criminogene behoeften, zoals middelenmisbruik en procriminele opvattingen; en dat de interventie aansluit bij de leerstijl van de delinquent, gestructureerd is en concreet.

Abstract

The prevalence of violent offenses in The Netherlands is showing a steady increase over the past few decades. Relapse prevention for this group of offenders has become a priority in public policy. Over the years, a number of treatment interventions for violent offenders have been developed, such as Aggression Replacement Training and anger management. Several meta-analyses of the effectiveness of these types of cognitive behavioral interventions for violent offenders show an average effect size of about .80, which is considered a large effect. Effective interventions follow the principles of the Psychology of Criminal Conduct as formulated by Andrews and Bonta. Essential to this model are the risk, need and responsivity principles. This means that behavioral interventions should be offered to medium- to high-risk offenders: that the intervention should target criminogenic needs, such as substance abuse and procriminal attitudes; and that the intervention matches the learning style of the offender, is highly structured and directed at skill development.

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© Bohn Stafleu van Loghum 2006

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