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La Ricerca in Clinica e in Laboratorio

, Volume 4, Issue 1–4, pp 569–590 | Cite as

Crioglobulinemia: Un modello di malattia da immunocomplessi. Studi immunochimici e strutturali

  • Franco Dammacco
  • Giacomo Lucivero
  • Antonio Miglietta
  • Salvatore Antonaci
  • Lorenzo Bonomo
Orginal Contribution
  • 34 Downloads

Riassunto

In 42 casi di crioglobulinemia è stata eseguita una série di ricerche immunologiche e strutturali. Dal punto di vista immunochimico, 7 crioglobuline erano singole (3 di tipo IgG e 4 di tipo IgM), mentre le rimanenti 35 erano del tipo misto IgG-IgM. Le forme miste furono a loro volta suddivise in 2 sottogruppi a seconda del carattere policlonale (25 casi) o monoclonale (10 casi) della componente IgM. Tutte le crioglobuline miste possedevano attività anti-gammaglobulinica che, dopo separazione cromatografica delle due componenti, si ritrovava esclusivamente nella frazione IgM. Tali crioglobuline miste devono pertanto considerarsi come immunocomplessi crioprecipitanti del tipo IgG/anti-IgG. Poiché anche le crioglobuline singole IgG monoclonali possedevano attività reumatoide, esse costituiscono pure degli immunocomplessi e sono quindi in apparenza forme singole, ma in realtà forme miste IgG/IgG. Nel tentativo di stabilire se DNA denaturato virale o nucleare possa rappresentare lo stimolo antigenico primitivo che dà luogo alla série di reazioni culminanti nella formazione del crioprecipitato, sono state esaminate 12 crioglobuline miste isolate. In 3 casi (25 %) è stata dimostrata la presenza di DNA così intimamente associate al crioprecipitato, da essere accessibile all’azione della DNAsi solo a pH acido. Infine, studi preliminari sulla sequenza amino-terminale di 4 catene æ isolate da altrettante componenti IgM monoclonali di crioglobuline miste IgM-IgG hanno permesso di svelare un’associazione preferenziale del sottogruppo di regione variabile VKIII in tale frazione IgM.

Cryoglobulinemia: A model of immune complex disease. Immunochemical and structural studies

Summary

Immunological and structural studies were performed in 42 cases of cryoglobulinemia. Seven of them were immunochemically characterized as single-type cryoglobulins (3 IgG and 4 IgM), whereas the remaining 35 were mixed IgG-IgM cryoglobulins. Mixed cryoglobulins were divided into 2 groups, depending on the polyclonal (25 cases) or monoclonal (10 cases) character of the IgM component. All mixed cryoglobulins exhibited anti-gammaglobulin activity, which could be recovered in the IgM fraction after Chromatographic separation of the cryoglobulin components. Mixed cryoglobulins should therefore be considered cryoprecipitating immune complexes of the IgG/anti-IgG type. Since some single monoclonal IgG cryoglobulins may also possess rheumatoid factor activity, they are only apparently of the single type, their actual composition being IgG/IgG. In order to assess whether viral or nuclear denatured DNA might represent the primitive antigenic stimulus which gives rise to the chain reactions leading to cryoprecipitation, 12 mixed cryoglobulins were investigated. DNA was demonstrated in 3 cases (25 %) and it appeared closely associated to the cryoprecipitate, in that the addition of DNAse was able to abolish the positivity only at acid pH. Finally, preliminary studies on the amino-terminal sequence of 4 æ chains isolated from IgM monoclonal components of mixed IgM-IgG cryoglobulins showed a preferential association of the VKIII variable region subgroup with the IgM fractions tested.

Key-words

Cryoglobulin DNA Immune complexes Leprosy Light chain Macroglobulinemia Monoclonal Myeloma Polyclonal Rheumatoid factor Variable region 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franco Dammacco
    • 1
  • Giacomo Lucivero
    • 1
  • Antonio Miglietta
    • 1
  • Salvatore Antonaci
    • 1
  • Lorenzo Bonomo
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di Clinica Medica II e Terapia Generaledell’Università degli Studi di BariBariItalia

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