Proceedings: Plant Sciences

, Volume 96, Issue 1, pp 25–36 | Cite as

Adaptive growth strategy of Khasi pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon)

  • Ashesh Kumar Das
  • P S Ramakrishnan


Three year old open grown pine saplings were selected. Three whorls of shoots were begun in one year. The species thus exhibits a recurrent flushing pattern. Two orders of shoots were recognised on the main leader during the study period of one year. Shoots produced at lower canopy levels attained less extension growth and fewer and shorter needles compared to shoots at higher canopy levels. The growth characteristics of shoots indicated shade intolerant nature of the species. The fascicles of 3 flushes appearing at different times of the year had different patterns of fall and life expectancy. The adaptive strategy of the growth pattern with recurrent flushing and short longevity of the needles are discussed and related to faster growth rate ofPinus kesiya in an early successional environment.


Tree growth strategy tree architecture succession leaf dynamics 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bazaz F A and Harper J L 1977 Demographic analysis of the growth ofLinum usitatissimum;New Phytol. 178 193–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boojh R and Ramakrishnan P S 1982 Growth strategy of trees related to successional status. II. Leaf dynamics;For. Ecol. Manage. 4 375–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cannell M G R, Thompson S and Lines R 1976 An analysis of inherent differences in shoot growth within some north temperate conifers, inTree Physiology and Yield Improvement, (eds) M G R Cannell and F T Last (London: Academic Press) pp. 173–226Google Scholar
  4. Das A K 1981Studies on growth pattern, primary productivity and nutrient dynamics of Khasi pine—Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon, Ph.D. Thesis, North-Eastern Hill University, ShillongGoogle Scholar
  5. Das G, Ramakrishna P S and Das A K 1982 Estimating fascicle surface area, of Khasi pine—Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon;Proc. Indian Nat. Sci. Acad. B48 361–366Google Scholar
  6. Gordon J and Larson P R 1968 Seasonal course of photosynthesis, respiration and distribution of14C in youngPinus resinosa trees as related to wood formation,Plant Physiol. 43 1617–1624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gettlieb J E 1968Plants: Adaptation through evolution (New Delhi: Affiliated East-West Press Pvt. Ltd.)Google Scholar
  8. Harms W R 1971 Estimating leaf area growth in pine;Ecology 52 931–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kinnerson R S, Higginbotham K O and Chapman R C 1974 The dynamics foliage distribution within a forest canopy;J. Appl. Ecol. 11 347–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kondratev P S 1961 Zakonomernosti formiru Vaniya Otdelnykh vegetativenykh organov derva vraznykhtipakh lesa iv razlichnykl zonakh evropeiskoi chasti SSSR (Patterns of formation of individual vegetative organs of trees in different types and in various zones of European USSR) Authors summary of Thesis MGU, Moskva.Google Scholar
  11. Kozlowski T T 1971Growth and development of Trees (New York, London: Academic Press)Google Scholar
  12. Lewan Dowska M and Jarvis P G 1977 Changes in chlorophyll and cartenoid content, specific leaf area and dry weight fraction in Sitca spruce in response to shading and season;New Phytol. 79 247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Madgwick H A I 1970 Biomass and productivity models of forest canopies; inAnalysis of Temperate Forest Ecosystems (ed.) D E Reichle (New York: Springer-Verlag) pp 47–54Google Scholar
  14. Madgwick H A I, Jackson D S and Knight P J 1977 Aboveground dry matter, energy and nutrient contents of trees in an age series ofPinus radiata PlantationsN. Z. J. For. Sci. 7 445–468Google Scholar
  15. Maillette L 1982 Needle demography and growth patterns of Corsican pine;Can. J. Bot. 60 105–116Google Scholar
  16. McGregor W H D and Kramer P J 1963 Seasonal trends in rates of photosynthesis and respiration of loblolly pine;Am J. Bot. 50 760–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ovington J D 1957 Dry matter production byPinus sylvestris L.;Ann. Bot. 21 287–314Google Scholar
  18. Pravdin L F 1969Scots pine variation. Intra specific taxonomy and selection. Israel Programme for Scientific translation, JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  19. Shukla R P and Ramakrishna P S 1984 Leaf dynamics of tropical trees related to successional status;New Phytol. 97 697–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wareing P F and Phillips I D J 1978The control of growth and differentiation in plants 2nd edition, (London: Edward Arnold)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashesh Kumar Das
    • 1
  • P S Ramakrishnan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany, School of Life SciencesNorth-Eastern Hill UniversityShillongIndia

Personalised recommendations