Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 82, Issue 4, pp 133–145 | Cite as

Genetics of host-parasite relationships and uniform and differential resistance

  • A. H. Eenink


The value of resistance depends on its level and stability. The stability is determined by the genetics of host-parasite relationships and not by the genetics of resistance. Quantity as well as quality of resistance and pathogenicity genes may be important. Monogenic and polygenic resistances can be stable or unstable. Research on the backgrounds of stable forms of resistance, e. g. concerning the R-gene and the possibly corresponding gene complex, would be of importance for detection or development of such resistances. The terms uniform and differential resistance should be used with discrimination.


Disease Resistance Leaf Rust Resistance Differential Resistance Phaseolin Pathogenicity Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, A. J. & Albersheim, P., 1972. Host-pathogen interactions. V. Physiol. Pl. Path. 2: 339–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andeweg, J. M., 1953. Vruchtvuurresistentie bij platglaskkomkommers. Zaadbelangen 7: 252–253.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous. 1975. The proposed FAO international programme on horizontal resistance to crop pests and diseases. AGPP: MISC/19.Google Scholar
  4. Ausemus, E. R., 1943. Breeding for disease resistance in wheat, oats. barley and flax. Bot. Rev. 9: 207–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailey, J. A., 1973. Phaseollin accumulation inPhaseolus vulgaris following infection by fungi, bacteria and a virus. pages 337–350. In: R. J. W. Byrde & C. V. Cutting (Eds). Fungal pathogenicity and the plants response. Acad. Press, London, 499pp.Google Scholar
  6. Bartos, P., Dyck, P. L., & Samborski, D. J., 1969. Adult plant leaf rust resistance in Thatcher and Marquis wheat: a genetic analyses of the host-parasite situation. Can. J. Bot. 47: 267–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhullar, B. S., Daly, J. M. & Rhefeld, D. W., 1975. Inhibition of dark CO2 fixation and photosynthesi in leaf discs of corn susceptible to the host specific toxin produced byHelminthosporium maydis race T. Pl. Physiol. 56: 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boukema, I. W. & Garretsen, F., 1975. Uniform resistance toCladosporium fulvum Cooke in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) 2. Euphytica 24: 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bravernan, S. W. & Leppik, E. E., 1972. Origins of cultivated plants and the search for disease resistance. N. Y. Food Life Sci. 5: 15–18.Google Scholar
  10. Britten, R. J. & Davidson, E. H., 1969. Gene regulation for higher cells: a theory. Science N. Y. 165: 349–357.Google Scholar
  11. Browning, J. A., 1974. Relevance of knowledge about natural ecosystems to development of pest management programs for agro-ecosystems. Proc. Am. phytopath. Soc. 1: 191–199.Google Scholar
  12. Bushnell, W. R., 1970. Patterns in the growth. oxygen uptake and nitrogen content of single colonies of wheat stem rust on wheat leaves. Phytopathology 60: 92–99.Google Scholar
  13. Caldwell, R. M., 1968. Breeding for general and/or specific plant disease resistance. 3rd Int. Wheat Genet. Symp. 263–275.Google Scholar
  14. Caldwell, R.M., Schafer, J. F., Compton, L. E. & Patterson, F. L., 1957. A mature plant type of wheat leaf rust resistance of composite origin. Phytopathology 47: 691–692.Google Scholar
  15. Cauquil, J. & Ranney, C. D., 1967. Internal infection of green cotton bolls and the possibility of genetic selection. Tech. Bull. agric. Exp. Stn Miss. 53: 24.Google Scholar
  16. Comstock, J. C. & Martinson, C. A., 1974. Respiratory rates of Texas male-sterile and normal cytoplasm corn leaves infected withHelminthosporium maydis race O and race T. Proc. Am. phytopath. Soc. 1: 124.Google Scholar
  17. Comstock, J. C. & Martinson, C. A., 1975. Involvement ofHelminthosporium maydis race T toxin during colonization of maize leaves. Phytopathology 65: 616–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Conway, W. S., Mac Hardy, W. E. & Kornahrens, H., 1974. Colonization and distribution ofFusarium oxysporum f. sp.lycopersici race 2 in near-isogenic lines of tomato susceptible or resistant to race 1. Proc. Am. phytopath. Soc, 1: 101.Google Scholar
  19. Cruickshank, I. A. M. & Perrin, D. R., 1967. Studies on phytoalexins. X. Phytopath Z. 60: 335–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dacosta, C. P. & Jones, C. M., 1971. Cucumber beetle resistance and mite susceptibility controlled by the bitter gene inCucumis sativus L. Science N. Y. 172: 1145–1146.Google Scholar
  21. Damann, K. E., Gardner, J. M. & Scheffer, R. P., 1974. An assay forHelminthosporium victoriae toxin based on induced leakage of electrolytes from oat tissue. Phytopathology 64: 652–654.Google Scholar
  22. Day, P. R., 1974. Genetics of host-parasite interaction, W. H. Freeman Co. San Francisco 238 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Dickson, J. G., 1956. Diseases of field crops. MacGraw-Hill, New York, 517 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Dunn, G. M. & Namm, T., 1970. Gene dosage effects on monogenic resistance to northern corn leaf blight. Crop Sci. 10: 352–354.Google Scholar
  25. Dijkman, A. van, 1972. Natural resistance of tomato plants toCladosporium fulvum. a biochemical study. Organisch Chemisch Instituut TNO, Utrecht, Holland. 94pp.Google Scholar
  26. Dillé, J. E. & Knowles, P. F., 1975. Histology and inheritance of the closed flower inCarthamus tinctorius (Compositae). Am. J. Bot. 62: 209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eenink, A. H., 1976. Linkage inSpinacia oleracea L. of two racespecific genes for resistance to downy mildew,Peronospora farinosa f. sp.spinaciae Byford. Euphytica 25: in press.Google Scholar
  28. Ellingboe, A. H., 1972. Genetics and physiology of primary infection byErysiphe graminis. Phytopathology 62: 401–406.Google Scholar
  29. Es, J. van, 1958. Bladvuurresistentie bij komkommers. Zaadbelangen 12: 116–117.Google Scholar
  30. Farkas, G. L., Dézsi, L., Horvath, M., Kisbán, K. & Udvardy, J., 1963/64, Common pattern of enzymatic changes in detached leaves and tissues attacked by parasites. Phytopath. Z., 49: 343–354.Google Scholar
  31. Fuchs, W. H., 1971. Physiological and biochemical aspects of resistance to diseases. pages 5–16. In: Mutation breeding for disease resistance, IAEA, Vienna, 249p.Google Scholar
  32. Gibson, R. W., 1971. Glandular hairs providing resistance to aphids in certain wild potato species. Ann. appl. Biol. 68: 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gnanamanickam, S. & Patil, S. S., 1974. Bacterial growth, toxin production and levels of ornithine carbamoyltransfease (oct) in resistant and susceptible varieties of bean inoculated withPseudomonas phaseolicola. Proc Am. Phytopath. Soc. 1: 66.Google Scholar
  34. Green, N. E., Hadwiger, L. A. & Graham S. O., 1974. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, tyrosine ammonia lyase and lignin in nearisolines of wheat inoculated withErysiphe graminis f. sp.tritici. Proc. Am. phytopath. Soc. 1: 65.Google Scholar
  35. Grümmer G., Günther, E & Eggert, D., 1969. Die Prüfung von Tomatensorten und ihen Hybriden auf Blatt-und Fruchtbefall mitPhytophthora infestans. Theor. appl. Genet. 39: 232–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hagedorn, D. J., 1973. Peas. pages 326–343. In: R.R. Nelson (Ed.). Breeding plants for disease resistance. Pennsylvania St. Univ. Press, London. 499 pp.Google Scholar
  37. Hall, J. A. & Wood, R. K. S., 1973. The killing of plant cells by pectolytic enzymes, pages 19–31. In: R. J. W. Byrde & C. V. Cutting (Eds). Fungal pathogenicity and the plants response. Acad. Press. London. 499 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Hamid, A. H. & Aragaki, M., 1975. Inheritance of pathogenicity inSetosphaeria turcia. Phytopathology 65: 280–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hammerschlag, F. & Mace, M. E., 1975. Antifungal activity of extracts fromFusarium wilt-susceptible and-resistant tomato plants. Phytopathology 65: 93–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hansen, H. P., 1934. Inheritance of resistance to plant diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and vira. Yb. R. vet. agric. Coll., Copenhagen, pp. 1–74.Google Scholar
  41. Hare, W. W., 1965. The inheritance of resistance of plants to nematodes. Phytopathology 55: 1162–1167.Google Scholar
  42. Hatchett, J. H. & Gallun, R. L., 1967. Genetics of the ability of the Hessian fly.Mayetiola destructor, to survive on wheats having different genes for resistance. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63: 1400.Google Scholar
  43. Heitefuss, R., 1965. Untersuchungen zur Physiologie des temperaturgesteuerten Verträglichkeitsgrades von Weizen undPuccinia graminis tritici I. Phytopath. Z. 54: 379–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heitefuss, R., 1966. Nucleic acid metabolism in obligate parasitism. A. Rev. Phytopath. 4: 221–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Heitefuss, R., 1970. Wirt-Parasit-Interaktionen. Ber. dt. bot. Ges. 83: 203–219.Google Scholar
  46. Heuvel, J. van den & Glazenier, J. A., 1975. Comparative abilities of fungi pathogenic and non pathogenic to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to metabolize phaseolin. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 81: 125–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hislop, E. C., Hoad, G. V. & Archer, S. A., 1973. The involvement of ethylene in plant diseases. pages 87–113. In: R. J. W. Byrde & C. V. Cutting (Eds). Fungal pathogenicity and the plants response. Acad. Press, London. 499p.Google Scholar
  48. Hogeboom, N. G., 1975. Incompatibility and incongruity: two different mechanisms for the nonfunctioning of intimate partner relationships. Proc. R. Soc. London. Sect. B. 188: 361–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hogenboom, N. G., Ponti, O. M. B. de & Pet, G., 1974. Veredeling van tomaat (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) op resistentie tegen witte vlieg (Trialeurodes vaporatiorum Westwood). Zaadbelangen 28: 160–163.Google Scholar
  50. Holmes, F. O., 1954. Inheritance of resistance to viral diseases in plants. Adv. Virus Res. 2: 1–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hooker, A. L. & Saxena, K. M. S., 1971. Genetics of disease resistance in plants. A. Rev. Genet. 5: 407–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Horber, E., 1972. Plant resistance to insects. Agric. Sci. Rev., 10: 1–10.Google Scholar
  53. Hubbeling, N., 1966. Resistance to American vascular disease and ‘near wilt’ on pea. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 72: 204–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hubbeling, N. & Kooistra, E., 1963. Resistance to early browning in peas. Euphytica, 12: 258–260.Google Scholar
  55. Ingham, J.L., 1972. Phytoalexins and other natural products as factors in plant disease resistance. Bot. Rev. 38: 343–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ingham, J. L., 1973. Disease resistance in higher plants. Phytopath. Z. 78: 314–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Innes, N. L., 1964. Resistance conferred by new gene combinations to bacterial blight of cotton. Euphytica 13: 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jacob, F. & Monod, J., 1961. Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins. J. molec. Biol. 3: 318–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Jones, L. R & Gilman, J. C., 1015. The control of cabbage yellows through disease resistance. Res. Bull. agric. Exp. Stn Univ. Wis. 38, pp. 70.Google Scholar
  60. Jones, J. E., Andries, J. A., Sloanes, L. W. & Phillips, S. A., 1968-69, Frego bract reduces cotton boll. rot. Bull. La. agric. Exp. Stn 12: 8–11.Google Scholar
  61. Kaars Sijpesteijn, A., 1969. Aspects of natural disease resistance. Meded. Rijksfak. Landbouwwet. Gent. 34: 379–391.Google Scholar
  62. Kruger, W. A., Josephson, L.M. & Hilty, J. W., 1974. Response of mitochondria from corn cytoplasms to the pathotoxin ofHelminthosporium maydis race T. Phytopathology 64: 735–737.Google Scholar
  63. Lang, A., 1970. Gibberellins: Structure and metabolism. Ann. Rev. Pl. Physiol. 21: 537–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Law, C. N. & Johnson, R., 1967. A genetic study of leaf rust resistance in wheat. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 9: 805–822.Google Scholar
  65. Loegering, W. Q., 1971. Application of interorganism genetics to mutation breeding for disease resistance. pages 25–30. In: Mutation breeding for disease resistance. IAEA, Vienna: 249pp.Google Scholar
  66. Luke, H. H., Barnett, R. D. & Pfahler, P. L., 1975. Inheritance of horizontal resistance to crown rust in oats. Phytopathology 65: 631–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lund, B. M., 1973. The effect of certain bacteria on ethylene production by plant tissue. pages 69–84. In: R. J. W. Byrde & C. V. Cutting (Eds), Fungal pathogenicity and the plant’s response. Acad. Press. London. 499p.Google Scholar
  68. Lyall, L. H. & Wallen, V. R., 1958. The inheritance of resistance toAscochytapisi Lib. in peas. Can. J. Pl. Sci. 38: 215–218.Google Scholar
  69. Maeda. K. M., 1970. An ultrastructural study ofVenturia inaequalis (Cke) Wint. infection ofMalus hosts, Masters Thesis. Purdue Univ., Lafayette. Ind.Google Scholar
  70. Martin, J. T., 1964. Role of cuticle in the defence against plant disease. A. Rev. Phytopath. 2: 81–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mastenbroek, C., 1960. A breeding programme for resistance to anthracnose in dry shell haricot beans, based on a new gene. Euphytica 9: 177–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Murphy, H. C. & Meehan, F., 1946. Reaction of oat varieties to a new species ofHelminthosporium. Phytopathology 36: 407.Google Scholar
  73. Nelson, R. R., 1973. Breeding plants for disease resistance. The Pennsylvania St. Univ. Press. 401 pp.Google Scholar
  74. Nelson, R. R., MacKenzie, D. R. & Scheifele, G. L., 1970. Interaction of genes for pathogenicity and virulence inTrichometasphaeria turcica with different numbers of genes for vertical resistance inZea mays. Phytopathology 60: 1250–1254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Peng, J. H. & Black, L. L., 1974. Increase in activity of proteinase inhibitors in tomato plants inoculated with an incompatible race ofPhytophthora infestans. Proc. Am. phytopath. Soc. 1: 63.Google Scholar
  76. Person, C., 1966. Genetic polymorphism in parasitic systems. Nature Lond. 212: 266–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Person, C. & Sidhu, G., 1971. Genetics of host-parasite interrelationships. pages 31–38. In: Mutation breeding for disease resistance. IAEA, Vienna: 249pp.Google Scholar
  78. Person, C. & Ebba, T., 1975. Genetics of fungal pathogens. Genetics 79: 397–408.Google Scholar
  79. Pilet, P. E., 1960. Auxin content and auxin catabolism of the stems ofEuphorbia cyparissia L. infected byUromyces pisi (Pers.). Phytopath. Z. 40: 75–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pitt, D. & Galpin, M., 1973. Role of lyosomal enzymes in pathogenicity. pages 449–465. In: R. J. W. Byrde & C. V. Cutting, (Eds) Fungal pathogenicity and the plants response. Acad. Press. London. 499pp.Google Scholar
  81. Plank, J. E. van der, 1963. Plant diseases: epidemics and control. Acad. Press, New York. 349pp.Google Scholar
  82. Plank, J. E. van der, 1968. Disease resistance in plants. Acad. Press. New York, 216pp.Google Scholar
  83. Plank, J. E. van der, 1975. Principles of plant infection. Acad. Press, New York. 216pp.Google Scholar
  84. Pound, G. S. & Cheo, P. C., 1952. Studies on resistance to cucumber virus I in spinach. Phytopathology 42: 301–306.Google Scholar
  85. Prakken, R., 1974. Inheritance of colours inPhaseolus vulgaris L. IV. Recombination within the «complex locus C». Meded. Landb. hogesch., Wageningen, 74-24, pp 36.Google Scholar
  86. Pringle, R. B. & Scheffer, R. P., 1964. Hostspecific plant toxins. A. Rev. Phytopath. 2: 133–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Riggle, J. H., 1974. Development ofPeronospora manshurica in leaves of susceptible, intermediate, resistant, and non-host plants. Proc. phytopath. Soc. 1: 129.Google Scholar
  88. Riley, R., 1973. Genetic changes in hosts and the significance of disease. Ann. appl. Biol. 75: 128–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Robinson, R. A., 1969. Disease resistance terminology. Rev. appl. Mycol. 48: 593–606.Google Scholar
  90. Ross, H., 1958. Virusresistenzzüchtung an der Kartoffel. Europ. Potato J. 1: 81–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rouselle, G. L., 1974. Variation of the hypersensitive reaction of the Vf gene for apple scab resistance. Rutgers Univ. State Univ. New Jersey. In: Doctoral Research on Agriculture 1975, 12.Google Scholar
  92. Ryder, E. J., 1970. Inheritance of resistance to common lettuce mosaic. J. Am. Soc. hort. Sci. 95: 378–379.Google Scholar
  93. Saxena, K. M. S. & Hooker, A. L., 1974. A study on the structure of gene RP3 for rust resistance inZea mays. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 16: 857–860.Google Scholar
  94. Shimomura, T. & Dijkstra, J., 1975. The occurrence of callose during the process of local lesion formation. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 81: 107–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Skoog, F. & Armstrong, D. J., 1970. Cytokinins. A. Rev. Pl. Physiol. 21: 359–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Slusher, R. L., Haas, D. L., Carothers, Z. B. & Sinclair, J. B., 1974. Ultrastructure at the host parasite interface ofPhytophthora megasperma var.sojae in soybean rootlets. Phytopathology 64: 834–840.Google Scholar
  97. Stahmann, M. A. & Demorest, D. M., 1973. Changes in enzymes of host and pathogen with special reference to peroxidase interaction. pages 405–420. In: R. J. W. Byrde & C. V. Cutting (Eds). Fungal pathogenicity and the plants response. Acad. Press. London. 499pp.Google Scholar
  98. Strobel, G. A., 1973. Biochemical basis of the resistance of sugarcane to eyespot disease. Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. USA 70: 1693–1696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Strobel, G. A., 1975. A mechanism of disease resistance in plants. Scient. Am. 232: 81–89.Google Scholar
  100. Tjallingii, F., 1952. Onderzoekingen over de mozaiekziekte van de augurk (Cucumis sativus L.). Meded. Inst. plziektenk. Onderz. No. 47, 117pp.Google Scholar
  101. Turner, M. F. & Hart, K., 1975. Field spore production ofHelminthosporium turcicum onZea mays with and without monogenic resistance. Phytopathology 65: 735–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ullstrup, A. J. & Brunson, A. M., 1947. Linkage relationships of a gene in corn determining susceptibility to aHelminthosporium leaf sport. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 39: 606–609.Google Scholar
  103. Valent, B. & Albersheim, P., 1974. A protein from the fungal pathogenColletotrichum lindemuthianum inhibits an enzyme of its host capable of attacking the pathogen. Proc. phytopath. Soc. 1: 52.Google Scholar
  104. Walker, J. C. & Stahmannn, M. A., 1955. Chemical nature of disease resistance in plants. A. Rev. Pl. Physiol. 6: 351–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Walker, J. C. & Williams, P. H., 1973. Cucurbits. pages 307–325. In: R. R. Nelson (Ed.) Breeding plants for disease resistance. Pennsylvania St. Univ. Press, London 401pp.Google Scholar
  106. Watkins, J. E. & Statler, G. D., 1974. Histological studies of the post-penetration phase of infection of resistant and susceptible wheat byPuccinia recondita tritici. proc. Am. phytopath. Soc. 1: 131.Google Scholar
  107. Watrud, L. S., Baldwin, J. K., Miller, R. J. & Koeppe, D. E., 1975. Induction of a sensitive response toHelminthosporium maydis race T toxin in resistant mitochondria of corn (Zea mays L.) by removal of the outer mitochondrial membrance. Pl. Physiol. 46: 216–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Watson, I. A. & Luig, N. H., 1966. Sr 15_— a new gene for use in the classification ofPuccinia graminis var.tritici. Euphytica 15: 239–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Webster, J. A., Smith, D. H., Rathe, E. & Cress, C. E., 1975. Resistance to cereal leaf beetle in wheat: density and length of leaf-surface pubescense in four wheat lines. Crop Sci. 15: 199–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Williams, P. H., 1975. Genetics of resistance in plants. Genetics 79: 409–419.Google Scholar
  111. Yen, D. E. & Cruickshank, I. A. M., 1957. The breeding of peas resistant toFusarium wilt. N.Z. JI. Sci. Technol. 38: 702–705.Google Scholar
  112. Yoder, O. C. & Gracen, V. E., 1975. Segregation of pathogenicity types and host-specific toxin production in progenies of crosses between races T and O ofHelminthosporium maydis (Cochlioholus heterostrophus). Phytopathology 65: 273–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Zadoks, J. C., 1972a. Reflections on disease resistance in annual crops. Proc. of a NATO-IUFRO Advanced Study Institute. Misc. Publ. U. S. Dep. Agric., Forest Serv., 1221: 43–63.Google Scholar
  114. Zadoks, J. C., 1972b. Modern concepts of disease resistance in cereals. Pages 89–98: In: F. G. H. Lupton et al. (Eds). The way ahead in plant breeding. Proc. 6th Eucarpia Congr., Cambridge. 1971.Google Scholar
  115. Zalewski, J. & Sequeira, L., 1974. A genetic approach to determine the role of a bacterial growth inhibitor from potato tissues in resistance to bacterial wilt. Proc. Am. phytopath. Soc. 1: 74.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. H. Eenink
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Horticultural Plant Breeding (IVT)Wageningenthe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations