The influence of alloying, temperature, and related effects on the stacking fault energy

Abstract

The present paper reviews experimental results for the magnitude of the stacking fault energy (γ) in pure fcc metals, and its variation with alloying and with temperature. Quantitative studies have principally involved electron microscopic observations of faulted defects (extended nodes, extrinsic-intrinsic fault pairs, tetrahedra) or the determination of rolling textures, while much valuable information has also been obtained from measurements of the X-ray faulting probability. Extensive measurements of the variation of γ with alloying have been made in silver, copper, and nickel base alloys and in stainless steels, from which general conclusions can be drawn regarding the composition dependence of γ with various solute types. The presence of irregular faulted configurations in samples of some high solute concentration alloys following room temperature deformation suggests that solute/dislocation pinning forces can exert considerable influence on the dislocation substructure. Annealing such samples leads to a reduction in the degree of irregularity of the substructure and generally to a decrease in mean faulted defect size. These changes appear to be due to the reduction, through a thermally activated process, of the effectiveness of the solute pinning forces rather than as a result of a strong dependence of γ on temperature. The variation of faulted defect size on annealing pure materials is likely to arise solely from the variation with temperature of γ and the elastic constants, and results in silver indicate that γ/G is approximately independent of temperature.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    J. W. Christian and P. R. Swann,Alloying Behavior and Effects in Concentrated Solid Solutions, T. B. Massalski, ed., p. 105, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1965.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    P. R. Thornton and P. B. Hirsch:Phil. Mag., 1958, vol. 3, p. 738.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    A. Seeger, R. Berner, and H. Wolf:Z. Physik., 1959, vol. 155, p. 247.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    H. Suzuki and C. S. Barrett:Acta Met., 1958, vol. 6, p. 156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    H. Hu, R. S. Cline, and S. R. Goodman:J. Appl. Phys., 1961, vol. 32, p. 1399.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    A. Howie and P. R. Swann:Phil. Mag., 1961, vol. 6, p. 1215.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    M. Ahlers and P. Haasen:Z. Metallk., 1962, vol. 53, p. 302.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    L. F. Vassamillet and T. B. Massalski:J. Appl. Phys., 1963, vol. 34, p. 3398.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    M. H. Loretto, L. M. Clarebrough, and R. L. Segall:Phil. Mag., 1964, vol. 10, p. 731.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    P. C. J. Gallagher: Ph.D. Thesis, Cambridge University, England, 1964.

  11. 11.

    A. Seeger:Phil. Mag., 1964, vol. 9, p. 887.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    S. Bühler and K. Lücke:Z. Metallk., 1964, vol. 55, p. 722.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    M. Ahlers:Z. Metallk., 1965, vol. 56, p. 741.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    T. Jøssang and J. P. Hirth:Phil. Mag., 1966, vol. 13, p. 657.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    P. C. J. Gallagher and J. Washburn:Phil. Mag., 1966, vol. 14, p. 971.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    M. Wilkens, M. Rapp, and K. Differt:Z. Metallk., 1966, vol. 57, p. 746.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    F. Häussermann and M. Wilkens:Phys. Stat. Sol., 1966, vol. 18, p. 609.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    A. W. Ruff and L. K. Ives:Acta Met., 1967, vol. 15, p. 189.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    L. M. Clarebrough, P. Humble, and M. H. Loretto:Can. J. Phys., 1967, vol. 45, p. 1135.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    H. M. Otte:J. Appl. Phys., 1967, vol. 38, p. 217.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    J. W. Steeds:Phil. Mag., 1967, vol. 16, p. 771.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    P. C. J. Gallagher:J. Appl. Phys., 1968, vol. 39, p. 160.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    P. C. J. Gallagher and Y. C. Liu:Acta Met., 1969, vol. 17, p. 127.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    M. J. Whelan:Proc. Roy. Soc., 1959, vol. A249, p. 114.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    R. Siems, P. Delavignette, and S. Amelinckx:Z. Physik, 1961, vol. 165, p. 502.

    MATH  ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    P. R. Thornton, T. E. Mitchell, and P. B. Hirsch:Phil. Mag., 1962, vol. 17, p. 1349.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    S. Mader:Electron Microscopy and Strength of Crystals, G. Thomas and J. Washburn, eds., p. 183, Interscience, New York, 1963.

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    L. M. Brown:Phil. Mag., 1964, vol. 10, p. 441.

    MATH  ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    R. Siems:Disc. Faraday Soc., 1964, vol. 38, p. 42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    T. Tøssang, M. J. Stowell, J. P. Hirth, and J. Lothe:Acta Met., 1965, vol. 13, p. 279.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    P. C. J. Gallagher:J. Appl. Phys., 1966, vol. 37, p. 1710.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    R. Fullman:J. Appl. Phys., 1951, vol. 22, p. 448.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    R. D. Heidenreich and W. Shockley:Report Conf. Strength of Solids, p. 57, Physical Society, London, 1948.

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    J. C. Fischer and C. G. Dunn: Surface and Interfacial Tensions of Single Phase Solids, Nat. Res. Council, Pocono Conf. on Imperfections, 1950; Discussion by R. Shuttleworth.

  35. 35.

    W. T. Read, Jr.:Dislocations in Crystals, p. 94, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1953.

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    J. P. Hirth and J. Lothe:Theory of Dislocations, p. 294, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1968.

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    J. C. Fisher and C. G. Dunn:Imperfections in Nearly Perfect Crystals, p. 317, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1952.

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    R. Berner:Z. Naturforsch., 1960, vol. A15, p. 689.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    P. Haasen and A. King:Z. Metallk., 1960, vol. 51, p. 722.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    M. C. Imman and A. R. Khan:Phil. Mag., 1961, vol. 6, p. 932.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    E. Peissker:Acta Met., 1965, vol. 13, p. 419.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    M. H. Loretto, L. M. Clarebrough, and R. L. Segall:Phil. Mag., 1965, vol. 11, p. 459.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    G. E. Rhead: Ph.D. Thesis, Glasgow University, Scotland, 1962.

  44. 44.

    G. E. Rhead and M. McLean:Acta Met., 1964, vol. 12, p. 401.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    G. Czjzek, A. Seeger, and S. Mader:Phys. Stat. Sol., 1962, vol. 2, p. 558.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    M. Ahlers and P. Haasen:Phys. Stat. Sol., 1965, vol. 10, p. 485.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    A. Seeger and G. Schöck:Acta Met., 1953, vol. 1, p. 519.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    J. W. Edington and R. E. Smallman:Phil. Mag., 1965, vol. 11, p. 1109.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    V. C. Kannan and G. Thomas:J. Appl. Phys., 1966, vol. 37, p. 2363.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    P. S. Dobson, P. J. Goodhew, and R. E. Smallman:Phil. Mag., 1967, vol. 16, p. 9.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    P. Haasen:Phil. Mag., 1958, vol. 3, p. 384.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    S. Mader, A. Seeger, and C. Leitz:J. Appl. Phys., 1963, vol. 34, p. 3368.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    I. L. Dillamore and R. E. Smallman:Phil. Mag., 1965, vol. 12, p. 191.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    B. E. P. Beeston, I. L. Dillamore, and R. E. Smallman:Met. Sci. J., 1968, vol. 2, p. 12.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    G. F. Bolling, L. E. Hays, and H. W. Wiedersich:Acta Met., 1962, vol. 10, p. 185.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    I. L. Dillamore, R. E. Smallman, and W. T. Roberts:Phil. Mag., 1964, vol. 9, p. 517.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Y. C. Liu and R. H. Richman:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1960, vol. 218, p. 668.

    Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    R. H. Richman and Y. C. Liu:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1961, vol. 221, p. 720.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    F. Haessner:Z. Metallk., 1963, vol. 54, p. 79.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    J. P. Hirth:J. Appl. Phys., 1961, vol. 32, p. 700.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    P. C. J. Gallagher:Phys. Stat. Sol., 1966, vol. 16, p. 95.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    M. A. Quader and R. A. Dodd:J. Appl. Phys., 1968, vol. 39, p. 4726.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    M. H. Loretto:Phil. Mag., 1964, vol. 10, p. 467.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    S. Amelinckx and P. Delavignette:J. Appl. Phys., 1960, vol. 31, p. 2126.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    W. J. Tunstall and P. J. Goodhew:Phil. Mag., 1966, vol. 13, p. 1259.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    P. C. J. Galłagher, J. Washburn, and G. Thomas:Phys. Stat. Sol., 1966, vol. 15, p. K93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    P. C. J. Gallagher:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1968, vol. 242, p. 103.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    R. G. Davies and R. W. Cahn:Acta Met., 1962, vol. 10, p. 621.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    R. P. I. Adler and C. N. J. Wagner:J. Appl. Phys., 1962, vol. 33, p. 3451.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    R. C. Sundahl and J. M. Sivertsen:J. Appl. Phys., 1963, vol. 34, p. 994.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    D. H. Sastry, P. R. Rao, and T. R. Anantharaman:Phys. Stat. Sol., 1965, vol. 8, p. K95.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    S. P. Sengupta and K. N. Goswami:Acta Cryst., 1967, vol. 22, p. 81.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    L. Deléhouzée and A. Deruyttere:Acta Met., 1967, vol. 15, p. 727.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    P. R. Rao and K. K. Rao:J. Appl. Phys., 1968, vol. 39, p. 4563.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    K. D. Rogausch:Z. Metallk., 1967, vol. 58, p. 59.

    Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    I. R. Harris, I. L. Dillamore, R. E. Smallman, and B. E. P. Beeston:Phil. Mag., 1966, vol. 14, p. 325.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    L. F. Vassamillet and T. B. Massalski:J. Appl. Phys., 1963, vol. 34, p. 3402.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    R. P. Elliot:Constitution of Binary Alloys, First Suppl., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1965.

    Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    P. C. J. Gallagher and R. C. Ku: Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, Mich., unpublished research, 1967.

  80. 80.

    T. V. Nordstrom and C. R. Barrett:Acta Met., 1969, vol. 17, p. 139.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    K. Kamada:J. Appl. Phys., 1968, vol. 39, p. 1824.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    T. C. Tisone, J. O. Brittain, and M. Meshii:Phys. Stat. Sol., 1968, vol. 27, p. 185.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    H. P. Rave and E. Hornbogen:Z. Metallk., 1964, vol. 55, p. 763.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    W. Köster and M. O. Speidel:Z. Metallk., 1965, vol. 56, p. 585.

    Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    M. H. Loretto, L. M. Clarebrough, and R. L. Segall:Phil. Mag., 1965, vol. 11, p. 459.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    A. Howie and M. J. Whelan:Proc. Roy. Soc., 1962, vol. A267, p. 206.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    J. M. Silcock and W. J. Tunstall:Phil. Mag., 1964, vol. 10, p. 361.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    L. M. Brown and A. R. Thölén:Disc. Faraday Soc., 1964, vol. 38, p. 35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    J. H. Foley, R. W. Cahn, and G. V. Raynor:Acta Met., 1963, vol. 11, p. 355.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    K. Nakajima and K. Numakura:Phil. Mag., 1965, vol. 12, p. 361.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    T. Imura, T. Suzuki, A. Ikushima, and K. Marukawa:J. Phys. Soc. Japan, Suppl. II, 1963, vol. 18, p. 111.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Y. C. Liu and G. A. Alers:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1966, vol. 236, p. 489.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Y. C. Liu and G. A. Alers:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1969, vol. 245, p. 1857.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Y. C. Liu:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1964, vol. 230, p. 656.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    T. E. Mitchell and P. R. Thornton:Phil. Mag., 1963, vol. 8, p. 1127.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    K. Schröder:Proc. Phys. Soc., 1959, vol. 73, p. 674.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    P. M. Hazzledine: Ph.D. Thesis, Cambridge University, England, 1966.

  98. 98.

    H. H. Wawra:Z. Metallk., 1968, vol. 59, p. 579.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    E. H. Köster, A. R. Thölén, and A. Howie:Phil. Mag., 1964, vol. 10, p. 1093.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    T. Ericsson:Acta Met., 1966, vol. 14, p. 853.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    B. E. P. Beeston and L. K. France:J. Inst. Metals, 1968, vol. 96, p. 105.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    D. L. Douglass, G. Thomas, and W. R. Roser:Corrosion, 1964, vol. 20, p. 15.

    Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    P. R. Swann:Corrosion, 1963, vol. 19, p. 102.

    Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    J. M. Silcock, R. W. Rookes, and J. Barford:J. Iron Steel Inst., 1966, vol. 204, p. 623.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    P. Coulomb, N. Gibert, A. Clément, and A. Coufou:J. Phys., Suppl. C3, 1966, vol. 27, p. 94.

    Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    B. Thomas and G. Henry:Mem. Sci. Rev. Met., 1967, vol. 64, p. 625.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. 107.

    C. R. Barrett and O. D. Sherby:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1965, vol. 233, p. 1116.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    P. R. Swann and J. Nutting:J. Inst. Metals, 1961, vol. 90, p. 133.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  109. 109.

    G. Thomas:J. Aust. Inst. Metals, 1963, vol. 8, p. 80.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    P. R. Swann:Disc. Faraday Soc., 1964, vol. 38, p. 84.

    Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    U. Valdrè:J. Sci. Inst., 1965, vol. 42, p. 853.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  112. 112.

    P. C. J. Gallagher and U. Valdrè:Estratto da Atti del V. congresso Italiano di Microscopia Elettronica, p. 258, Seminario di Padova, UNESCO, 1965.

  113. 113.

    L. K. Ives and A. W. Ruff:Phys. Stat. Sol., 1968, vol. 27, p. 117.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    J. R. Neighbours and G. A. Alers:Phys. Rev., 1958, vol. 111, p. 707.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    B. E. Warren and E. P. Warekois:Acta Met., 1955, vol. 3, p. 473.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  116. 116.

    M. J. Klein:Scripta Met., 1967, vol. 1, p. 65.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    D. E. Mikkola and J. B. Cohen:J. Appl. Phys., 1962, vol. 33, p. 892.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    W. G. Truckner and D. E. Mikkola:J. Appl. Phys., 1969, vol. 40, p. 5021.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    R. W. Cahn and R. G. Davies:Acta Met., 1962, vol. 10, p. 170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    M. S. Wechsler and R. H. Kernohan:Acta Met., 1959, vol. 7, p. 599.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  121. 121.

    S. Matsuo and L. M. Clarebrough:Acta Met., 1963, vol. 11, p. 1195.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  122. 122.

    P. A. Flinn:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1960, vol. 218, p. 145.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    J. B. Cohen and M. E. Fine:J. Phys. Radium, 1962, vol. 23, p. 749.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    G. Thomas:J. Aust. Inst. Metals, 1963, vol. 8, p. 80.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    H. Suzuki:Sci. Rep. Res. Inst. Tohoku Univ., 1952, vol. A4, p. 452.

    Google Scholar 

  126. 126.

    N. F. Fiore and C. L. Bauer:Progr. Mater. Sci., 1968, vol. 13, p. 87.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  127. 127.

    R. E. Smallman and K. H. Westmacott:Phil. Mag., 1957, vol. 2, p. 669.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  128. 128.

    M. L. Rudee and R. A. Huggins:Phil. Mag., 1965, vol. 11, p. 539.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    R. W. Cahn and R. G. Davies:Phil. Mag., 1960, vol. 5, p. 1119.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  130. 130.

    H. M. Otte:J. Appl. Phys., 1962, vol. 33, p. 1436.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  131. 131.

    M. H. Loretto:Phil. Mag., 1965, vol. 12, p. 1087.

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    William of Occam, 1280–1349.

  133. 133.

    P. C. J. Gallagher:Lattice Defects and Their Interactions, R. G. Hasiguti, ed., p. 1021, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  134. 134.

    A. W. Ruff and L. K. Ives: National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C., unpublished research, 1969.

  135. 135.

    Y. C. Liu and P. C. J. Gallagher: Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, Mich., unpublished research, 1969.

  136. 136.

    A. Blandin, J. Friedel, and G. Saada:J. Phys., Suppl. C3, 1966, vol. 27, p. 128.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to P. C. J. Gallagher.

Additional information

P. C. J. GALLAGHER, formerly Research Metallurgist Senior, Scientific Research Laboratory, Ford Motor Co., Dearbom, Mich.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gallagher, P.C.J. The influence of alloying, temperature, and related effects on the stacking fault energy. MT 1, 2429–2461 (1970). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03038370

Download citation