The Indian musical drums

  • C. V. Raman

8. Summary

The paper gives a detailed description of the results obtained by the author in the year 1919 which showed that in the Indian musical drums we have a circular drum-head which is loaded and damped in such a manner that all the overtones above the ninth are suppressed and these nine are grouped in such a manner as to give a succession of five tones in harmonic sequence. The vibrations of the drum-head present a striking analogy to the case of a stretched string giving one or the other of its first five harmonics; the drum-head divides up into 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 sections giving the respective harmonics. The third, fourth and fifth harmonics are obtained by superposition of 2, 2 and 3 respectively of the normal modes of vibration. The corresponding superposed forms of vibration are readily obtained and demonstrated by means of sand figures. Numerous figures illustrate the paper.


Normal Mode Nodal Line Lower Tone Nodal Diameter Loaded Area 
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  1. 1.
    C. V. Raman,Nature, 1920,500, 104.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 1934

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. V. Raman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsIndion Institute of ScienceBangalore

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