Journal of Plant Biology

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 203–209 | Cite as

Molecular cloning and characterization of thepsbL andpsbJ genes for photosystem II fromPanax ginseng



We have cloned and characterized two genes for Photosystem II from chloroplasts ofPanax ginseng. These genes,psbl andpsbJ, comprise 117 and 123 nucleotides, respectively. When compared with monocots, dicots, or liverwort, the overall amino acid sequence identity of the former is >97%, whereas that of the latter is approximately 95 to 100%. Southern blot analysis revealed that a single copy of each gene exists in the chloroplast genome. Our Northern blot analysis indicated thatpsbL andpsb) are co-transcribed as a polycistron and are not subjected to further processing into smaller transcripts. We also determined that varying daylight intensities (5,10, 20, or 100%) did not significantly change the level ofin vivo accumulation ofpsbLJ transcript


light intensity Panaxginseng Photosystem II psbpsbtranscription 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Bock R, Hagemann R, Kossel H, Kudla J (1993) Tissue and stage specific modulation of RNA editing of thepsbF and psbL transcript from spinach plastids — a new regulatory mechanism? Mol Gen Genet 240: 238–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bonham-Smith PC, Bourque DP (1989) Translation of chlo-roplast-encoded mRNA: Potential initiation and termination signals. Nucleic Acids Res 19: 155–162Google Scholar
  3. Bushmann C, Melier D, Klendgen HK, Lichtenthaler HK (1978) Regulation of chloroplast development by red and blue light. Photochem Photobiol 27: 195–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chan L (1993) RNA editing: Exploring one mode with apo-lipoprotein B mRNA. BioEssays 15: 33–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chaudhuri S, Maliga P (1996) Sequences directing C to U editing of the plastid psbL mRNA are located within a 22 nucleotide segment spanning the editing site. EMBO J 15: 5958–5964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheon SK (1989) Effects of light intensity and quality on the growth and quality of Korean ginseng. Ph. D. thesis. Kyungbook National University, DaeguGoogle Scholar
  7. Degreef J, Butler WL, Roth TF (1971) Greening of etiolated bean leaves by far-red light. Plant Physiol 47: 457–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gillham NW, Boynton JE, Hauser CR (1994) Translation regulation of gene expression in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Annu Rev Genet 28: 71–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Haley J, Bogorad L (1990) Alternative promoters are used for genes within maize chloroplast transcription units. Plant Cell 2: 323–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Innerarity TL, Boren J, Yamanaka S, Olofsson SO (1996) Biosynthesis of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins. J Biol Chem 271: 2353–2356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jang WC, Tae GS (1996) Structural changes of the spinach photosystem II reaction center after inactivation by heat treatment. J Biochem Mol Biol 29: 58–62Google Scholar
  12. Kitamura K, Ozawa S, Shiina T, Toyoshima Y (1994) L protein, encoded bypsbl, restores normal functioning of the primary quinone acceptor, Q-A, in isolated D1-D2-CP47-Cytb-559-l photosystem II reaction center core complex. FEBS Lett 354: 113–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee WK, Park DS, Tae GS (1998) Cloning and characterization of the psbEF gene encoding cytochrome b-559 of the Panaxginseng photosystem II reaction center. J Biochem Mol Biol 32: 189–195Google Scholar
  14. Maier RM, Neckermann K, Igloi GL, Kossel H (1995) Complete sequence of the maize chloroplast genome: Gene content, hotspots of divergence and fine tuning of genetic information by transcript editing. J Mol Biol 251:614–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nanba O, Satoh K (1987) Isolation of a photosystem II reaction center consisting of D-1 and D-2 polypeptides and cytochrome b-559. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 109–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ozawa S, Kobayashi T, Sugiyama R, Hoshida H, Shiina T, Toyoshima Y (1997) Role of PSII-L protein (psbL gene product) on the electron transfer in photosystem II complex: 1. Over-production of wild-type and mutant versions of PSII-L protein and reconstitution into the PSII core complex. Plant Mol Biol 34: 151–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pakrasi HB, Williams JGK, Arntzen CJ (1988) Targeted mutagenesis of the psbE and psbF genes blocks photo-synthetic electron transport; Evidence for a functional role of cytochrome b-559 in Photosystem II. EMBO J 7: 325–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ruf M, Kossel H (1988) Occurrence and spacing of ribo-some recognition sites in mRNA of chloroplasts from higher plants. FEBS Lett 240: 42–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Schuster W, Brennicke A (1994) The plant mitochondrial genome: Physical structure, information content, RNA editing, and gene migration. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 45: 61–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shine J, Dalgarno L (1974) The 3′-terminal sequence ofEscherichia coli 16S rRNA complementarity to nonsense triplets and ribosome binding sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71: 1342–1346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tohdoh N, Sugiura M (1982) The complete nucleotide sequence of 16S ribosomal RNA gene from tobacco chloroplasts. Gene 17: 213–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Korea 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, College of the Advanced ScienceDankook UniversityChungnamKorea

Personalised recommendations