Advertisement

Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 19, Issue 8, pp 1632–1648 | Cite as

Reynolds number effects on the non-nulling calibration of a cone-type five-hole probe for turbomachinery applications

  • Sang Woo Lee
  • Sang Bae Jun
Article

Abstract

The effects of Reynolds number on the non-nulling calibration of a typical cone-type fivehole probe have been investigated for the representative Reynolds numbers in turbomachinery. The pitch and yaw angles are changed from −35 degrees to 35 degrees with an angle interval of 5 degrees at six probe Reynolds numbers in range between 6.60 × 103 and 3.17× 104. The result shows that not only each calibration coefficient itself but also its Reynolds number dependency is affected significantly by the pitch and yaw angles. The Reynolds-number effects on the pitchand yaw-angle coefficients are noticeable when the absolute values of the pitch and yaw angles are smaller than 20 degrees. The static-pressure coefficient is sensitive to the Reynolds number nearly all over the pitch- and yaw-angle range. The Reynolds-number effect on the totalpressure coefficient is found remarkable when the absolute values of the pitch and yaw angles are larger than 20 degrees. Through a typical non-nulling reduction procedure, actual reduced values of the pitch and yaw angles, static and total pressures, and velocity magnitude at each Reynolds number are obtained by employing the calibration coefficients at the highest Reynolds number (Re=3.17×104) as input reference calibration data. As a result, it is found that each reduced value has its own unique trend depending on the pitch and yaw angles. Its general tendency is related closely to the variation of the corresponding calibration coefficient with the Reynolds number. Among the reduced values, the reduced total pressure suffers the most considerable deviation from the measured one and its dependency upon the pitch and yaw angles is most noticeable. In this study, the root-mean-square data as well as the upper and lower bounds of the reduced values are reported as a function of the Reynolds number. These data would be very useful in the estimation of the Reynolds-number effects on the non-nulling calibration.

Key Words

Five-Hole Probe Non-Nulling Calibration Reynolds Number Turbomachinery 

Nomenclature

Cm

Pseudo Mach number, Eq. (7)

Cpe

Pitch-angle coefficient, Eq. (1)

Csp

Static-pressure coefficient, Eq. (3)

Ctp

Total-pressure coefficient, Eq. (4)

Cya

Yaw-angle coefficient, Eq. (2)

D

Diameter of five-hole probe

M

Mach number

Pav

Average pressure, Eq. (5)

Pi

Pressure measured at the i-th pressuresensing hole of five-hole probe

Ps

Static pressure or measured static pressure

Ps,red

Reduced static pressure

Pt

Total pressure or measured total pressure

Pt.red

Reduced total pressure

Q

Velocity magnitude or measured velocity magnitude

Qred

Reduced velocity magnitude, Eq. (6)

ReD

Reynolds number=U∞D/v

U∞

Free-stream velocity

Greek symbols

α

Pitch angle or rotated pitch angle

αred

Reduced pilch angle

β

Yaw angle or rotated yaw angle

βred

Reduced yaw angle

νV

Kinematic viscosity

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abernethy, R. B., Benedict, R. P. and Dowdell, R. B., 1985, “ASME Measurement Uncertainty,”ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 107, pp. 161–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, J, D., Jr., 1990,Modern Compressible Flow with Historical Perspective, Series in Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering, McGraw-Hill, p.6.Google Scholar
  3. Coldrick, S., Ivey, P. and Wells, R., 2002, “Considerations for Using 3D Pneumatic Probes in High Speed Axial Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT-2002-30045.Google Scholar
  4. Dominy, R. G. and Hodson, H. P., 1993, “An Investigation of Factors Influencing the Calibration of Five-Hole Probes for Three-Dimensional Flow Measurement,”ASME Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 115, pp. 513–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hoffmann, G. D., Rabe, D. C. and Poti, N. D., 1980, “Flow Direction Probes from a Theoretical and Experimental Point of View,”Journal of Physics E-Scientific Instruments, Vol.13, pp. 751–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Koschel, W. and Pretzsch, P., 1988, “Development and Investigation of Cone-Type Five-Hole Probes for Small Gas Turbine,”Proceedings Of 9th Symposium on Measuring Techniques in Transonic and Supersonic Flows in Cascade and Turbomachines, Oxford, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  7. Lee, S. W., Lee, J. S. and Ro, S. T., 1994, “Experimental Study on the Flow Characteristics of Streamwise Inclined Jets in Crossflow on Flat Plate,”ASME Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 116, pp. 97–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lee, S. W., Kim, Y. B. and Lee, J. S., 1997, “Flow Characteristics and Aerodynamic Losses of Film-Cooling Jets with Compound Angle Orientations,”ASME Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 119, pp. 310–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lee, S. W., Park, S. W. and Lee, J. S., 2001a, “Flow Characteristics Inside Circular Injection Holes Normally Oriented to a Crossflow: Part I — Flow Visualizations and Flow Data in the Symmetry Plane,”ASME Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 123, pp. 266–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lee, S. W., Joo, S. K. and Lee, J. S., 2001b, “Flow Characteristics Inside Circular Injection Holes Normally Oriented to a Crossflow: Part II — Three-Dimensional Flow Data and Aerodynamic Loss,”ASME Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 123, pp. 274–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lee, S. W. and Yoon, T. J., 1999, “An Investigation of Wall-Proximity Effect Using a Typical Large-Scale Five-Hole Probe,”KSME International Journal, Vol. 13, pp. 273–285.Google Scholar
  12. Ligrani, P. M., Singer, B. A. and Baun, L. R., 1989, “Spatial Resolution and Downwash Velocity Corrections for Multiple-Hole Pressure Probe in Complex Flow,”Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 7, pp. 424–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Prenter, P. M., 1975,Splines and Variational Methods, Wiley-Intersciences.Google Scholar
  14. Sitaram, N., Lakshminarayana, B. and Ravindranath, A., 1981, “Conventional Probes for the Relative Flow Measurement in a Turbomachinery Rotor Blade Passage,”ASME Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 103, pp. 406–414.Google Scholar
  15. Smith, A. L. and Adcock, J. B., 1986, “Effect of Reynolds Number and Mach Number on Flow Angularity Probe Sensitivity,” NASA TM- 87750.Google Scholar
  16. Treaster, A. L. and Yocum, A. M., 1979, “The Calibration and Application of Five-Hole Probes,”ISA Transactions, Vol. 18, pp. 23–34.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers (KSME) 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringKumoh National Institute of TechnologyGyongbookRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations