Esmolol attenuates hepatic blood flow responses during sodium nitroprusside-induced hypotension in dogs

  • Shohei Takeda
  • Rikuo Masuda
  • Tatsuo Kanazawa
  • Teruaki Tomaru
General Anesthesia



The hemodynamic responses secondary to sympathetic suppression by esmolol may alter blood flow to splanchnic organs. We investigated whether esmolol might modify splanchnic organ blood flow responses during sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced hypotension in dogs anesthetized with sevoflurane.


The control group (n = 10) received SNP (SNP group). The ES25 and ES100 groups (n = 10, each) received SNP combined with esmolol infused at a constant rate of 25 and 100 μg·kg−1·min−1 during the hypotensive period after a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 60 mmHg was attained by the infusion of a 0.03% SNP solution, respectively. The renal, hepatic, and pancreatic blood flows (RBF, HBF, and PBF) were measured by using the hydrogen clearance method.


Cardiac index in the SNP group increased (P < 0.01), but in the ES groups it decreased (P < 0.01). Left ventricular dP/dtmax in the SNP group remained unchanged, but in the ES groups it decreased (P < 0.01, each) during the hypotensive period. Except for HBF in the SNP group, the splanchnic blood flow in all groups decreased (P < 0.01, each). The HBF in the ES groups was lower than that in the SNP group (SNP vs ES25, ES100; 70 ± 1 vs 64 ± 5, 63 ± 3mL·min−1·100g−1).


This study shows that the differences in HBF between SNP-induced hypotension with or without esmolol may be due to the changes in cardiac output caused by alterations of cardiac contractility. These findings suggest that a small dose of esmolol may impair the maintenance of HBF during SNP-induced hypotension.


Mean Arterial Pressure Sevoflurane Renal Blood Flow Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure Esmolol 
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L’esmolol atténue la réaction du débit sanguin hépatique à l’hypotension induite par le nitroprussiate de sodium chez les chiens



Les réactions hémodynamiques secondaires à la suppression sympathique par l’esmolol peuvent modifier le débit du sang vers les organes splanchniques. Nous avons vérifié si l’esmolol pouvait modifier la réaction du débit sanguin des organes splanchniques à l’hypotension induite par le nitroprussiate de sodium (NPS) chez des chiens anesthésiés avec du sévoflurane.


Le groupe témoin (n = 10) a reçu du NPS (groupe NPS). Les groupes ES25 et ES100 (n = 10, chacun) ont reçu du NPS combiné à une perfusion d’esmolol selon un débit constant de 25 ou 100 μg·kg−1·min−1 pendant l’hypotension suivant la tension artérielle moyenne (TAM) de 60 mmHg obtenue par la perfusion d’une solution de NPS à 0,03 %. Les débits sanguins rénal, hépatique et pancréatique (DSR, DSH et DSP) ont été mesurés par la méthode de clairance à l’hydrogène.


L’index cardiaque a augmenté dans le groupe NPS (P < 0,01), mais il a diminué dans le groupe ES (P < 0,01). La dP/dtmax ventriculaire gauche est demeurée inchangée dans le groupe NPS, mais a diminué dans les groupes ES (P < 0,01, chacun) pendant la période d’hypotension. Excepté pour le DSH dans le groupe NPS, le débit sanguin splanchnique a baissé dans tous les groupes (P < 0,01 chacun). Le DSH dans les groupes ES a été plus bas que celui du groupe NPS (NPS vs ES25, ES100; 70 ± 1 vs 64 ± 5, 63 ± 3 mL·min−1·100g−1).


L’étude montre que les différences de DSH entre l’hypotension induite par le NPS avec ou sans esmolol peuvent relever des changements de débit cardiaque amenés par des modifications de la contractilité cardiaque. Ces résultats suggèrent qu’une faible dose d’esmolol peut nuire au maintien du DSH pendant l’hypotension induite par le NPS.


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Copyright information

© Canadian Anesthesiologists 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shohei Takeda
    • 1
  • Rikuo Masuda
    • 1
  • Tatsuo Kanazawa
    • 1
  • Teruaki Tomaru
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyShowa University Fujigaoka HospitalYokohamaJapan

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