Effectiveness of “neutral,” habituated, shock-related, and food-related stimuli as CSs for avoidance learning in goldfish

  • William G. Braud


Four groups of 11 goldfish were given different kinds of experiences with a light stimulus later to be used as a CS for two-way, active avoidance conditioning. For one group, the light was repeatedly paired with food; for another, the light was paired with inescapable shock; a third group received light-only presentations (habituation); a control group never experienced the light before testing. In avoidance conditioning testing, the shock-related and food-related groups performed significantly better than the control group, which in turn outperformed the habituated group. It is concluded that the acquisition of an orienting reaction to a CS outweighs the positive-vs-negative source of that OR.


Active Avoidance Inescapable Shock Avoidance Conditioning Home Tank Orient Reaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. Lynn, R.: Attention, Arousal, and the Orientation Reaction. New York, Pergamon Press, 1966.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • William G. Braud
    • 1
  1. 1.University of HoustonHouston

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