KSME International Journal

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 513–525 | Cite as

An experimental investigation of heat transfer in forced convective boiling of R134a, R123 and R134a/R123 in a horizontal tube



This paper reports an experimental study on flow boiling of pure refrigerants R134a and R123 and their mixtures in a uniformly heated horizontal tube. The flow pattern was observed through tubular sight glasses with an internal diameter of 10 mm located at the inlet and outlet of the test section. Tests were run at a pressure of 0.6 MPa in the heat flux ranges of 5–50 kW/m2, vapor quality 0–100 percent and mass velocity of 150–600 kg/m2s. Both in the nucleate boiling-dominant region at low quality and in the two-phase convective evaporation region at higher quality where nucleation is supposed to be fully suppressed, the heat transfer coefficient for the mixture was lower than that for an equivalent pure component with the same physical properties as the mixture. The reduction of the heat transfer coefficient in mixture is explained by such mechanisms as mass transfer resistance and non-linear variation in physical properties etc. In this study, the contribution of convective evaporation, which is obtained for pure refrigerants under the suppression of nucleate boiling, is multiplied by the composition factor by Singal et al. (1984). On the basis of Chen’s superposition model, a new correlation is presented for heat transfer coefficients of mixture.

Key Words

Convective Boiling Flow Pattern Heat Transfer Horizontal Tube Mixture 



Thermal diffusivity (m2/s)


Boiling number (=q/Ghfg)


Convection number ( = (ρυι)0.5( (1-β/β0.8)


Specific heat (J/kgk)


Tube Diameter (m)


Gravitational acceleration (m/s2)


Specific enthalpy (J/kg)


Latent heat of vaporization (J/kg)


Froude number


Mass velocity (kg/m2s)


Thermal conductivity (W/mK)


Pressure (Pa)


Heat flux (W/m2)


Reynolds number


Temperature (K)


Mole fraction in liquid


Martinelli parameter


Mole fraction in vapor


Axial distance (m)

Greek Letters


Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)


Vapor quality


Contact angle (=35°)


Boiling point range (K)


Ideal wall superheat (K)


Density (kg/m3)


Surface tension (N/m)


Viscosity (Pa · s)


Kinematic viscosity (m2/s)





Inlet of the heat transfer section




Nucleate boiling






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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers (KSME) 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringPukyong National UniversityBusanKorea
  2. 2.Division of Marine EngineeringMokpo National Maritime UniversityMokpoKorea

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