Advertisement

Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 647–660 | Cite as

Nuclear and atomic analytical techniques in environmental studies in South America

  • A. S. Paschoa
Trace Element Composition of Biological Materials

Abstract

The use of nuclear analytical techniques for environmental studies in South America is selectively reviewed since the time of earlier works of Lattes with cosmic rays until the recent applications of the PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) technique to study air pollution problems in large cities, such as São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The studies on natural radioactivity and fallout from nuclear weapons in South America are briefly examined.

Index Entries

Environmental studies radioactivity measurements accelerator/reactor-based analytical techniques PIXE 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    C. M. G. Lattes,Topics on Cosmic Rays, Editora da UNICAMP, Campinas, 1984.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council,The Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation, Summary Reports, Washington,1 (1956).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Aron,An. Acad. Brasil. Ciênc.,28, 423 (1956).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Kegel,An. Acad. Brasil. Ciênc.,28, 447 (1956).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. Penna Franca, A. Pinto Coelho, and C. Chagas,An. Acad. Brasil. Ciênc.,29, 553 (1957).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Marquez, N. L. Costa, and I. G. Almeida,Radioactive Products in the Soil and in the Atmosphere, Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto Brasileiro de Bibliografia e Documentação, Rio de Janeiro, p. 55, 1958.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Campos and E. Peralles Pinto,Radioactive Products in the Soil and in the Atmosphere, Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto Brasileiro de Bibliografia e Documentaçaõ, Rio de Janeiro, p. 65, 1958.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Penna Franca and A. Pinto Coelho,Radioactive Products in the Soil and in the Atmosphere, Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto Brasileiro de Bibliografia e Documentação, Rio de Janeiro p. 99, 1958.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. Kegel,Radioactive Products in the Soil and in the Atmosphere, Comissaõ Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto Brasileiro de Bibliografia e Documentação, Rio de Janeiro, p. 103, 1958.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    E. Penna Franca and A. Pinto Coelho,Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, vol. XVIII, United Nations, Geneva, p. 512, 1958.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    B. Gross, A. Aron, E. Meyer, and F. X. Roser,Proceedings of the Second United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, vol. XVIII, United Nations, Geneva, p. 575, 1958.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    B. Gross, A. Aron, E. Meyer, F. X. Roser, S. Costa Ribeiro, and A. C. Olinto,Acta Physica Austriaca,2, 187–195 (1958).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. Gross and A. Aron,Proceedings of the Second United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, vol. XVIII, United Nations, Geneva, p. 580, 1958.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. Penna Franca and A. Pinto Coelho,An. Acad. Brasil Ciênc.,31, 49 (1959).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. Gross, E. Meyer, and A. Aron,Radioatividade do “fallout” no Rio de Janeiro, Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto Brasileiro de Bibliografia e Documentação, DTC 3, p. 1, 1959.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. Penna Franca,Segundo Simposio Interamericano sobre la Aplicacioń de la Energia Nuclear para Fines pacíficos, C.I.E.N., Organización de Estados Americanos, Washington, p. 63, 1960.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. Penna Franca, P. L. dos Santos, and A. S. Paschoa,An. Acad. Brasil. Ciênc.,41, 583 (1969).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. Meyer,An. Acad. Brasil. Ciênc.,43, 331 (1971).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. H. Mendonça and E. Penna Franca,An. Acad. Brasil. Ciênc.,43, 813 (1971).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. Beninson and E. Ramos,Contaminación por I-131 debida a “fallout,” Comisión Nacional de Energia Atómica, Informe No. 75 (1962).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. Beninson, A. Migliori, H. Mugliaroli, and E. van der Elst,4th Interamerican Symposium on the Peaceful Applications of Nuclear Energy, vol. II, Pan American Union, Washington, pp. 85–92, 1962.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Benech and C. M. Franchi,Arch. Soc. Biol. Montevideo,26, 81–86 (1963).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. Benech and C. M. FranchiSr-90 in dientes de niños, Grupo de estudio sobre Higiene Radiofísica, International Atomic Energy Agency and Pan American Health Organization, Buenos Aires, Nov. 1966.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    C. Benech,Radioiodo debido a “fallout” en ganado, Ministerio de Ganadería y Agricultura, Depto. de Prensa y Biblioteca, Boletín Informativo No. 1194, Montevideo, 1967.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. Benech and C. M. Franchi, Arch.Soc. Biol. Montevideo,27, 26–29 (1969).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. Beninson, A. Migliori de Beninson, and C. Menossi,Fallout radioactivo debido a las explosiones en el pacífico Sur en el período 1966–1977, Comisión Nacional de Enewrgia Atómica, Dependiente de la Presidencia de la Nación, Gerencia de Protección Radiológica y Seguridad, Inf. RS 28/49, 1971.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Comisión Nacional de Energia Atómica,Dependiente de la Presidencia de la Nación, Gerencia de Pretección Radiológica y Seguridad, División Estudios Ambientales, Compilación de los resultados del monitoraje de Sr-90 y Cs-137 debido al fallout en la Republica Argentina, Inf. RS 34/66, 1972.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Benech and S. Cubas de Porta,Arch. Pediatría del Uruguay,45, 232–239 (1974).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. Cubas de Porta and C. Benech,Arch. Pediatría del Uruguay 46, 149–152 (1975).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. Benech and S. Cubas de PortaSintaxis,2, 65–76 (1976).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. Benech A. Kun, and S. Cubas de PortaAn. Fac. Odontologia,16, 55–60 (1978).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    C. Benech and S. Cubas de PortaRevista de Medicina y Biología Nuclear (ALASBYMN),12, 13–14 (1980).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    F. X. Roser and T. L. Cullen,Radioactive Products in the Soil and Atmosphere, Instituto Brasileiro de Bibliografia e Documentacão, pp. 5–27, 1958.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    T. L. Cullen,An. Acad. Brasil. Ciênc.,29, 545–552 (1958).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    F. X. Roser and T. L. Cullen,An. Acad. Brasil. Ciênc.,34, 23–35 (1962).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    F. X. Roser and T. L. Cullen,Environmental Radioactivity in High Background Areas of Brazil, Institute of Physics, Pontifical Catholic University, Rio de Janeiro, pp. 1–105, 1962.Google Scholar
  37. 38.
    F. X. Roser and T. L. Cullen,Science,138, 145–146 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 39.
    F. X. Roser and T. L. Cullen,The Natural Radiation Environment I, J. A. S. Adams and W. M. Lowder, eds., Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 825–872, 1964.Google Scholar
  39. 40.
    M. Eisenbud, H. Petrow, R. T. Drew, F. X. Roser, G. Kegel, and T. L. Cullen,The Natural Radiation Environmental I, J. A. S. Adams and W. M. Lowder, eds., 837–854, Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1964.Google Scholar
  40. 41.
    F. X. Roser, G. Kegel, and T. L. Cullen,The Natural Radiation Environment I, J. A. S. Adams and W. M. Lowder, eds., Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 855–872, 1964.Google Scholar
  41. 42.
    F. X. Roser, G. H. Kegel, L. Hainberger, T. L. Cullen, and R. T. Drew,A Study of Artificial and Natural Radioactive Contamination in Brazil, Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, USAEC-AT (30-1)-2577, pp. 1–83, 1964.Google Scholar
  42. 43.
    E. Penna Franca, J. C. C. Almeida, J. Becker, M. Emmerich, F. X. Roser, G. Kegel, L. Hainberger, T. L. Cullen, H. Petrow, R. T. Drew, and M. Eisenbud,Health Phys.,11, 699 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 44.
    T. L. Cullen,Health Phys.,12, 970–971 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 45.
    E. Penna Franca, M. Fiszman, N. Lobão, C. Costa Ribeiro, H. Trindade, P. L. dos Santos, and D. Batista,Health Phys.,14, 95–99 (1968).Google Scholar
  45. 46.
    T. L. Cullen, I. M. Antunes, A. S. Paschoa, H. Quintella, L. Hainberger, H. A. S. Andrade, and S. V. Duarte,A Study of Natural Radioactivity in Brazil, Pontificia Universidade Católica, Rio de Janeiro, NYO-2577-10, pp. 1–43, 1968.Google Scholar
  46. 47.
    T. L. Cullen, I. M. Antunes, A. S. Paschoa, and H. Quintella,A Study of Natural Radioactivity in Brazil, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, NYO-2577-11, pp. 1–25, 1969.Google Scholar
  47. 48.
    E. Penna Franca, M. Fiszman, N. Lobão, H. Trindade, C. Costa Ribeiro, and P. L. dos Santos,Health Phys.,19, 657–662 (1970).Google Scholar
  48. 49.
    T. L. Cullen and A. S. Paschoa,A Study of Natural Radioactivity in Brazil, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, pp. 1–55, 1972.Google Scholar
  49. 50.
    E. Penna Franca, C. Costa Ribeiro, D. E. Gonzales, T. I. Cullen, and M. Barcinski,The Natural Radiation Environment II, J. A. S. Adams, W. M. Lowder, and T. F. Gesell, eds., CONF. 720805, 1975.Google Scholar
  50. 51.
    L. Hainberger, I. R. Paiva, H. Andrade, G. Zundel, and T. L. Cullen,Radiological Data and Reports 15, 483 (1974).Google Scholar
  51. 52.
    E. Penna Franca,Areas of High Natural Radioactivity, T. L. Cullen and E. Penna Franca, eds., Acad. Brasil. Ciênc., pp. 29–48, 1975.Google Scholar
  52. 53.
    T. L. Cullen,Areas of High Natural Radioactivity, T. L. Cullen and E. Penna Franca, eds., pp. 49–64, 1975.Google Scholar
  53. 54.
    T. L. Cullen and A. S. Paschoa,Natural Radioactivity in Man’s Environment, Health Physics Society, p. 301, 1976.Google Scholar
  54. 55.
    T. L. Cullen, A. S. Paschoa, E. Penna Franca, C. Costa Ribeiro, M. Barcinski, and M. Eisenbud, in the5th Int’l. Congress of the Int’l. Radiation Protection Association, vol. III, pp. 335–338, 1980.Google Scholar
  55. 56.
    M. Eisenbud, K. Krauskopf, E. Penna Franca, W. Lei, R. Ballad, P. Linsallata, and K. Fujimore,Environ. Geol. Water Sci.,6, 1–9 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 57.
    A. S. Paschoa, E. C. Montenegro, W. Margulis, A. G. de Pinho, C. V. Barros Leite, and G. B. Baptista,Nuclear Methods in Environmental and Energy Research, James R. Vogt, ed., CONF-771072, University of Missouri, Columbia, pp. 21–48, 1977.Google Scholar
  57. 58.
    C. M. Q. Orsini and L. C. S. Bouéres,Nucl. Instr. and Meth.,142, 27 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 59.
    E. C. Montenegro, G. B. Baptista, L. V. de Castro Faria, and A. S. Paschoa,Nucl. Instr. and Meth.,168, 471–484 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 60.
    A. S. Paschoa, G. B. Baptista, E. C. Montenegro, C. V. Barros Leite, and T. L. Cullen,Nuclear Methods in Environmental and Energy Research, James R. Vogt, ed., CONF-800433, University of Missouri, Columbia, pp. 147–158 (1980).Google Scholar
  60. 61.
    G. B. Baptista, E. C. Montenegro, A. S. Paschoa, and C. V. Barros Leite,Nucl. Instr. and Meth.,181, 263–267 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 62.
    A. S. Paschoa, G. B. Baptista, G. M. Mauricio, C. V. Barros Leite, Y. B. Lerner, and P. F. Issler,Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Research B3, 352–356 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 63.
    C. M. Q. Orsini and L. C. S. Bouéres,Rev. Bras. Fis.,9, 747 (1979).Google Scholar
  63. 64.
    L. C. S. Bouéres and C. M. Q. Orsini,Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 181, 417–424 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 65.
    P. Artaxo and C. Orsini,Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Research,B22, 259–263 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 66.
    M. H. Tabacniks, C. Orsini, and P. Artaxo,Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Research,B22, 315–318 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 67.
    P. Artaxo, H. Storms, F. Bruynseels, R. Van Grieken, and M. Maehaut,J. Geophys. Research,93, 1605–1615 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 68.
    II Seminário Latinoamericano de Analisis por Técnicas de Rayos-X, SARX-87, Bahia Blanca, Argentina.Google Scholar
  68. 69.
    L. P. Geraldo, O. Y. Mafra, and E. M. Tanaka,J. Radioanal. Chem.,49, 115 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 70.
    A. S. Paschoa, C. A. N. Oliveira, and O. Y. Mafra,Trans. Amer. Nucl. Soc.,39, 359–360 (1981).Google Scholar
  70. 71.
    A. S. Paschoa, A. L. Ferro, and O. Y. Mafra,Trans. Amer. Nucl. Soc.,45, 60–61 (1983).Google Scholar
  71. 72.
    A. S. Paschoa, O. Y. Mafra, D. O. Cardoso, and A. C. S. Rocha,Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements,8, 469–472 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 73.
    V. P. Guinn,Nuclear Methods in Environmental and Energy Research, CONF-840408 (DOE), p. 23.Google Scholar
  73. 74.
    R. N. Alves, Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), personal communication (1989).Google Scholar
  74. 75.
    M. W. Carter and H. H. Moghissi,Health Phys.,33, 55 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 76.
    W. J. Gibbs, J. R. Moroney, D. J. Stevens, and E. W. Titerton,Fallout over Australia from Nuclear Weapons Tested by France in Polynesia during June and July 1972, Publishing Service, Canberra, 1972.Google Scholar
  76. 77.
    A. S. Paschoa and C. Benech,An. Acad. Brasil. Cienc. To be published (1989).Google Scholar
  77. 78.
    UnaUnited Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Report to the General Assembly. Official Records of the Twenty-First Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/6314), United Nations, New York (1968).Google Scholar
  78. 79.
    United States Naval Research Laboratory,Radiological Health Data Repts.,2, 477 (1961).Google Scholar
  79. 80.
    H. W. Feely, L. E. Toonkel, and M. Schoenberg,Health and Safety Laboratory, Environmental Quarterly, Appendix B, HASL-328, 1977.Google Scholar
  80. 81.
    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation,Report to the General Assembly, vol. I, Annex A, United Nations, NY, E.72.IX.17, p. 1972.Google Scholar
  81. 82.
    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.Report to the General Assembly, Annex C, United Nations, NY, E.77.IX.1, p. 115, 1977.Google Scholar
  82. 83.
    F. X. Roser, T. L. Cullen, L. Hainberger, N. L. Costa, H. Gomes, I. M. Antunes, and A. S. Paschoa,A Study of Natural Radioactivity in Brazil, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Rio de Janeiro, NYO-2577-7, pp. 1–90, 1966.Google Scholar
  83. 84.
    A. S. Paschoa,Environmental Transfer to Man of Radionuclides Released from Nuclear Installations, IAEA/CEC, Luxemburg, vol. II, V/7400/84-EN, p. 827, 1984.Google Scholar
  84. 85.
    T. L. Cullen, I. M. Antunes, A. S. Paschoa, J. Pohl-Ruling, L. Hainberger, G. Zundel, H. A. S. Andrade, and I. R. O. Paiva,A Study of Natural Radioactivity in Brazil, Pontifícia Universidade Católica, Rio de Janeiro, NYO-2577-8, pp. 1–68, 1967.Google Scholar
  85. 86.
    International Atomic Energy Agency,Report of the Goíania Accident, IAEA, Vienna, 1988.Google Scholar
  86. 87.
    M. Salki, M. B. A. Vasconcellos, and J. A. A. Sertie,This Conference (1989).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. S. Paschoa
    • 1
  1. 1.Depto. de FísicaPontifíćia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC/RJ)Rio de Janeiro

Personalised recommendations