Factors affecting the levels reported for vanadium in human serum

  • K. Heydorn
Nuclear Analytical Methods and QA


Chemometric techniques may be applied to extract significant analytical information from a series of publications that present methods and results for determining trace elements in biological material. This approach was applied to the total of 28 papers published in 1971–1988 that reported determination of vanadium in normal human serum or plasma; the levels spanned four orders of magnitude.

The most important factors affecting the analytical results were found to be the choice of analytical method and the experience of the laboratory in trace-element research. Results from the most experienced laboratories with the best analytical methods were found to be correlated with the precision of the data, indicating that the correct concentration of vanadium would be<1 mg/m3. This is in agreement with results subsequently obtained by radiochemical neutron activation analysis of eight samples of serum from Danish colleagues.

Index Entries

Chemometric techniques Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis Human serum or plasma Vanadium concentration Factor analysis Literature survey Correlation analysis 


  1. 1.
    K. Schwarz and D. B. Milne,Science 174, 426 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. C. Cantley et al.,J Biol. Chem. 252, 7421 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. J. Naylor,Metal Ions in Neurology and Psychiatry, Alan R. Liss, New York, 1985, pp. 91–105.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. A. Schroeder and A. P. Nason,Clin. Chem. 17, 461 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. D. Christian,Anal. Lett. 4, 187 (1971).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. Damsgaard, K. Heydorm, and B. Rietz,Nuclear Activation Techniques in the Life Sciences, IAEA, Vienna, 1972, pp. 119–128.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. J. Burger,Trace Element Metabolism in Animals-2, University Park Press, Baltimore, 1974, pp. 671–74.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Panteliadis,Spurenelemente in der Entwicklung von Mensch and Tier Urban & Schwarzenberg München, 1975, pp. 103–112.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. D. Vis, P. M. A. Van der Kam, and H. Verheul,Nucl. Instrum. Methods 142, 159 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Elsa N. Bello-Reuss, T. P. Grady, and D. C. MazumdarAnn. Intern. Med. 91, 743 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. R. Byrne and L. Kosta,Sci. Total Environ. 13, 87 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Cornelis, L. Mees, J. Hoste, J. Ryckebusch, J. Versieck, and F. BarbierNuclear Activation Techniques in the Life Sciences, IAEA, Vienna, 1979, pp. 165–177.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. Sabbioni, E. Marafante, R. Pietra, L. Goetz, F. Girardi, and E. Orvini,Nuclear Activation Techniques in the Life Sciences, IAEA, Vienna, 1979, pp. 179–192.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    N. I. Ward and D. E. Ryan,Anal. Chim. Acta 105, 185 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Cornelis, J. Versieck, L. Mees, J. Hoste, and F. Barbier,J. Radioanal. Chem. 55, 35 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. Cornelis, J. Versieck, L. Mees, J. Hoste and F. Barbier,Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 3, 257 (1981).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. A. T. Dick, E. G. Dick, and G. J. Naylor,J. Physiol. 310, 24P (1981).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. M. Sprague, A. Fregene, J. Costanino, R. W. Rosenbaun, and G. H. Mayor,Clin. Res. 29, 476A (1981).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    D. A. T. Dick, G. J. Naylor, and E. G. Dick,Psychol. Med. 12, 533 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. D. Stroop, G. Helinek, and H. L. Greene,Clin. Chem. 28, 79 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Z. Mianzhi and R. M. Barnes,Appl. Spectroscopy 38, 635 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. J. Naylor, A. H. W. Smith, D. Bryce-Smith, and N. I. Ward,Psychol. Med. 14, 767 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    L. Pyy, E. Hakala, and L. H. J. Lajunen,Anal. Chim. Acta 158, 297 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Simonoff, Y. Llabador, G. N. Simonoff, C. Beraud, P. Couzigou, C. Conri, and B. Fleury,Trace Elem. Anal. Chem. Med. Biol. 3, 495 (1984).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. D. Fassett, and H. M. Kingston,Anal. Chem. 57, 2474 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. A. Lewis, T. C. O’Haver, and J. M. Harnly,Anal. Chem. 57, 2 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Simonoff, C. Conri, and G. Simonoff,Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 59, 463 (1986).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    F. M. Corrigan, J. D. Finlayson, M. Muir, G. W. Ashcroft, and N. I. Ward,Trace Elem. Med. 4, 139 (1987).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. J. Naylor, F. M. Corrigan, A. H. W. Smith, P. Connelly and N. I. Ward,Br. J. Psychol. 150, 656 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Simonoff, Y. Llabador, C. Hamon, B. Berdeu, G. Simonoff, C. Conri, B. Fleury, P. Couzigou, and A. Lucena,J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 113, 107 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. A. Campbell, M. Peet, and N. I. Ward,Biol. Psychiatr. 24, 775 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    N. Lavi and Z. B. Alfassi,J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 126, 361 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    V. Iyengar and J. Woittiez,Clin. Chem. 34, 474 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    K. Heydorn,Neutron Activation Analysis for Clinical Trace Element Research, vol. 1, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 1984, pp. 1–22.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    L. Sachs,Applied Statistics, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    K. HeydornProc. 2nd Int. Conf. Elements Health Disease, Hamdard University Press, Karachi, 1988, pp. 347–359.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. Heydorn,Aspects of Precision and Accuracy in Neutron Activation Analysis, Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, 1980.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    K. Heydorn,Neutron Activation Analysis for Clinical Trace Element Research, vol. 2, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 1984, pp. 1–49.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Definitions and Terms,J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 114, 409 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Standard Reference Material 909 Human Serum,Certificate of Analysis, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD, 1988.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. Versieck, Ghent, private communication, 1988.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    K. Heydorn and B. Wanscher,Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 292, 34 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Heydorn
    • 1
  1. 1.Isotope DivisionRisø National LaboratoryRoskildeDenmark

Personalised recommendations