Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 137–144 | Cite as

Substance flows through the economy and environment of a region

Part II: Modelling
  • Ester van der Voet
  • Reinout Heijungs
  • Paul Mulder
  • Ruben Huele
  • René Kleijn
  • Lauran van Oers
Research Articles


In the tradition of the study of materials flows through society, the Substance Flow Analysis (SFA) method and its software tool SFINX are presented. SFA aims at providing the relevant information for a country’s overall management strategy regarding single substances or coherent groups of substances. Three modelling techniques and their possibilities and limitations are discussed: Bookkeeping, static modelling, and dynamic modelling. The computer program SFINX can be used for varoius purposes: (1) to obtain an overview of stocks and flows of a substance in, out and through a nation’s economy and environment for a specific year, (2) to trace the origins of specific pollution problems, and (3) to estimate the effectiveness of certain abatement measures. Each application has its own requirements with regard to data and modelling.


Origin Analysis Substance Flow Abatement Measure Substance Flow Analysis Ultimate Origin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alcamo, J.;R. Shaw;L. Hordijk (eds.): The RAINS model of acidification, science and strategies in Europe. IIASA or Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1990Google Scholar
  2. Anderberg, S.; G. Bauer; Y. Ermoliev; W. M. Stigliani: Mathematical Tools for Studies of Industrial Metabolism. IIASA working paper WP-93 - 9, Laxenburg Austria 1993, 28 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Baccini, P.;P. H. Brunner: Metabolism of the Anthroposphere. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1991, 212 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Bader, H.-P.;P. Baccini: Monitoring and control of regional material fluxes. In: Soil Monitoring, Monte Verità, Birkhäuser Verlag Basel, 1993, pp 26–34Google Scholar
  5. Bernts, H.; H. van Zeijts; F. Stouthart: Vermindering mineralenoverschotten op landbouwbedrijven (Reduction of mineral surplus in agricultural practice). Centre for Agriculture and the Environment report no. 123, Utrecht, 1993, ii + 60 ppGoogle Scholar
  6. Chiang, A.C.: Fundamental Methods of Mathematical Economics, international student edition. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, St. Louis, San Francisco, London, Mexico, Panama, Sydney, Toronto; Kogakusha Company Ltd., Tokyo, 1967, xiv + 690 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Doluschitz, R.;H. Welck;J. Zeddies: Stickstoffbilanzen landwirtschaftlicher Betriebe -Einstieg in eine Ökologische Buchführung? (Nitrogen budgets for Agricultural Practice - Start of an Ecological Bookkeeping?) Berichte Landwirtschaft 70 (1992), pp. 551–565Google Scholar
  8. Fleckseder, H.: A Nitrogen Balance for Austria. Water Science & Technology 26 (1992) no. 7-8, pp 1789–1795Google Scholar
  9. Gilbert, A. J; J. F. Feenstra: An indicator of Sustainable Development - Diffusion of Cadmium. Free University of Amsterdam, report R-92/06, 1992, pp vi + 66Google Scholar
  10. Harenz, H.;W. Köster;D. Merkel: Stickstoff-, Phosphor- und Kaliumbilanzen der Landwirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der ehemaligen DDR von 1950 bis 1988. Agribiological Research 45 (1992) no. 4, pp 285–293Google Scholar
  11. Heijungs, R.: A generic method for the identification of options for cleaner products. Ecological Economics 10 (1994), pp 69–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Houghton, J. T.;G. J. Jenkins;J. J. Ephraums (eds): Climate Change, the IPCC scientific assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991Google Scholar
  13. Kleijn, R.;E. van der Voet;H. A. Udo de Haes: Controlling substance flows: the case of chlorine. Environmental Management 18 (1993) no. 4, pp 523–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kroes, J. G.: ANIMO agricultural nitrogen model, version 1, user guide. ICW nota 1848, Wageningen, 1988Google Scholar
  15. Leontief, W.: Input-Output Economics. Oxford University Press, New York/ Oxford, 1966Google Scholar
  16. Lohm, U.: unpublished, 1994. Linköping University, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  17. Mackay, D.;K. E. Clark: Predicting the Environmental Partitioning of Organic Contaminants and their Transfer to Biota. In:Jones, K.C. (Editor) Organic contaminants in the Environment. Elsevier Applied Science series, London/New York, 1991, pp 159–188Google Scholar
  18. Ministry of Environment; Ministry of Transport; National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection: Samenwerkingsprojekt Procesbeschrijvingen Industrie Nederland SPIN (Cooperation project process descriptions Dutch industry)Google Scholar
  19. Nnational Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection: National Environmental Outlook 3, 1993–2015. Samsom H.D. Tjeenk Willink, Alphen a/d Rijn, The Netherlands, 1994, 165 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Oers, L. M. C. F. van;P. Mulder;E. van der Voet;R. Kleijn;R. Huele: Handleiding SFINX 2.1 (Manual SFINX 2.1). Centre of Environmental Science, Leiden, 1995Google Scholar
  21. Olsthoorn, C. S. M.: Stikstof en Fosfor in Nederland, 1990 (Nitrogen and Phosphorus in The Netherlands, 1990). Kwartaalberichten Milieu (Central Bureau of Statistics) 93/1, 1993Google Scholar
  22. Schrøder, H.: Input Management of Nitrogen in Agriculture. Ecological Economics, in pressGoogle Scholar
  23. Udo de Haes, H. A.; L. Reijnders; H. Verbruggen; L. Hordijk; J. B. Opschoor; F. A. M. de Haan; Th. G. Drupsteen: Accumulation of metals in economic/environmental cycles: mechanisms, risks and possible management strategies. Research program for Sustainability and Environmental Quality, funded by the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research, 1992. The program will be running in the years 1994–1998Google Scholar
  24. Veen, M. Q. van der; H. F. M. Aarts; J. Dijk; N. Middelkoop; C. S. van der Werf: Stofstromen in de Nederlandse landbouw deel I: Nutriëntenstromen op melkveebedrijven in Gelderland (Substance flows in the Dutch agriculture part I: Nutrient flows in dairy farms in Gelderland). LEI report 112, The Hague, 1993Google Scholar
  25. Voet, E. van der; R. Kleijn; L. van Oers; R. Heijungs; R. Huele; P. Mulder: Substance flows through the economy and environment of a region - Part I: Systems definition. Envir.Sci.& Pollut.Res. 2 (1995) no. 2, pp 90–96Google Scholar
  26. Voet, E. van der: PhD thesis, in preparation, Centre of Environmental Science Leiden UniversityGoogle Scholar
  27. Voet, E. van der;L.van Egmond;E. G. M. Kleijn;G. Huppes: Cadmium in the European Community - A policy oriented analysis. Waste Management and Research 12 (1994), no. 2, pp 507–526Google Scholar
  28. Voet, E. van der; R. Kleijn; H. A. Udo de Haes: Nitrogen Pollution in the European Union - Origins and Proposed Solutions. Submitted to Environmental Conservation, 1994 (2a)Google Scholar
  29. Voet, E. van der; R. Kleijn; H. A. Udo de Haes: Nitrogen Pollution in the European Union - an Economy-Environment Confrontation. Submitted to Environmental Conservation, 1994 (2b)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ecomed Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ester van der Voet
    • 1
  • Reinout Heijungs
    • 1
  • Paul Mulder
    • 1
  • Ruben Huele
    • 1
  • René Kleijn
    • 1
  • Lauran van Oers
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Environmental ScienceLeiden UniversityRA LeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations