Environmental toxicity monitoring using electrochemical biosensing systems

  • Sílvia Solé
  • Salvador Alegret
Review Articles


Environmental monitoring faces the challenge of measuring an increasing number of analytes at ever decreasing concentrations. Since not all species of a given analyte have the same detrimental impact on the environment, new analytical devices and techniques are required to distinguish between the different species of a pollutant or different groups of pollutants. This paper describes analytical techniques based on biomaterials that are toxically sensitive to pollutants. This approach permits the biomonitoring of certain compounds by looking at their toxic properties. Although these techniques are based on a sound analytical strategy, their applications are limited because most of the interactions between the biological material and the analyte are irreversible. Additionally, the immobilised biological material has a limited stability. Several biomonitoring strategies based on electrochemical biosensing are discussed here and how to recover the bioactivity of biosensing system, both in discrete and automated procedures, is also reviewed.


Bead injection analysis bioactivity regeneration biocomposites biomonitoring biosensors environmental monitoring environmental toxicity in-field environmental monitoring magnetic biopartides mercury PCBs pesticides speciation analytics 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Namiesnik J, Biziuk M, Chrzanowski W, Wardencki W, Zygmunt B (1995): Contemporary trends in environmental analytics. Chem Anal40, 115–141Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Clement RE, Yang WP (1992): Environmental Analysis. Anal Chem71, 257R-292RCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Koch R (1992): Fresenius Environ. Bull1, 682Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Szpunar J, Lobinski R (1999): Fresenius J Anal Chem363, 550–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Lobinski R, Adams FC (1993): Tr Anal Chem12, 41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Lopez-Avila V, Hill HH (1997): Anal Chem69, 289R-305RCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7] homepest.htmlGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Marth P, Schramm KW, Henkelmann B, Wolf A, Oxynos K, Schmitzer J, Kettrup A: (1999): UWSF — Z Umweltchem Okotox11, 89–97Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Solé S, Merkoçi A, Alegret S (2001): Crit Rev Anal Chem, SubmittedGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Usden E (1970): Anticholinesterase Agents. Pergamon Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Wiegand-Rosinus M, Haberer K, Obst U, Wild A (1990): Z. Wasser Abwasser Forsch,23, 98Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Berga U, Vygodina T, Musatov A, Nicholls P, Konstantinov AA (1993): FEBS Lett,315, 237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Webb JL (1996): Enzyme and Metabolic Inhibitors.Vol II. Academic Press. New York, pp 635–653Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Stoytcheva M, Sharkova V, Magnin JP (1998): Electroanalysis,10, 994–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Stoytcheva M, Sharkova V, Panayotova M (1998): Anal Chim Acta364, 195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Karube I, Mitsuda S, Matsunaga T, Suzuki S (1977): J Ferment Technol55, 243–248Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Riedel K, Rennenberg R, Kühn M, Scheller F (1988): Appl Microbiol Biotechnol28, 316–318Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Karube I, Okada T, Suzuki S (1988): Anal Chem53, 1852–1854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Neujahr NY, Kjellen KG (1979): Biotechnol Bioeng21, 671–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Linders CE, Vincké BJ, Patriarche GJ (1985): Anal Lett18, 2195–2208Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Dempsey E, Smyth MR, Richardson DHS: 1992): Analyst117, 1467–1470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Hammock BD, Mumma RO: 1980: Recent Advances in Pesticide Analytical Methodology. J.R.J. Harvey, G. Zweig Ed., p 321Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Sadik OA, Van Emon JM (1996): Biosens Bioelectr11, i-xiCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Van Emon JM, Lopez-Avila V: (1992): Anal Chem64, 79A-88ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Hock B, Dankwardt A, Kramer K, Marx A (1995): Anal Chim Acta311, 393–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Hock B, Marx A, Scifert M, Brenner-Weiß G: (1998): Quim Anal17, 185–190Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Marco MP, Gee S, Hammock BD: (1995): Trends Anal Chem14, 341–350Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Ruzicka J, Stewart JWB(1975): Anal Chim Acta79, 79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Ruzicka J, Hansen E (1980): Anal Chem114, 19–44Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Ruzicka J, Hansen EH (1975): Anal Chim Acta78, 145 (Danish Patent Application No. 4846/74; U.S. Patent No. 4.022.575)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Alegret S, Céspedes F, Martínez-Fàbregas E, Martorell D, Morales A (1996): Biosens. & Bioelectr11, 35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Alegret S: 1996): Analyst121, 1751–1758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Alegret S, Alonso J, Bartroll J, Céspedes F, Martínez-Fàbregas E, del Valle M (1996): Sensors and Materials8, 147–153Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Céspedes F, Martínez-Fàbregas E, Alegret S (1996): Trends in Anal Chem15, 296–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Santandreu M, Céspedes F, Alegret S, Martínez-Fàbregas E (1997): Anal Chem69, 2080–2085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Albareda-Sirvent M, Merkoçi A, Alegret S (2000): Sensors and ActuatorsB 69, 153–163Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Galán-Vidal CA, Muñoz J, Domínguez C, Alegret S: 1995): Trends in Anal Chem14, 225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Saurina J, Hernández-Cassou S, Fàbregas E, Alegret S (1998): Anal Chim Acta371, 46–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Saurina J, Hernández-Cassou S, Alegret S, Fàbregas E (1999): Biosens & Bioelectr14, 211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Saurina J, Hernández-Cassou S, Fàbregas E, Alegret S (1998): Anal Chim Acta371, 46–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Solé S, Alegret S, Céspedes F, Martínez-Fábregas E (2000): Anal Chem405, 153Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    Santandreu M, Solé S, Martínez-Fàbregas E, Alegret S (1998): Biosens & Bioelectr13, 7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    Santandreu M, Solé S, Alegret S, Martínez-Fàbregas E (1988): In: Hock B, Barceló D, Cammann K, Hansen PD, Turner APF (eds) Biosensors for environmental applications. B.G. Teubner Verlagsgesellschaft Stuttgart, Leizig, pp 64–89Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Soldatkin AP, Volotovsky V, El’skaya AV, Jaffrezic-Renault N, Martelet C (2000): Anal Chim Acta403, 25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    Amine A, Cremisini C, Palleschi B (1995): Mikrochim Acta121, 183–190Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Fennouh S, Casimiri V, Geloso-Meyer A, Burstein C (1998): Biosens & Bioelectr13, 903–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    Diehl-Faxon J, Ghindilis AL, Atanasov P, Wilkins E (1996): Sensors and Actuators B,35-36, 448–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    Kumaran S, Tran-Minh C (1992): Analytical Biochem200, 187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Khayyami M, Pita MTP, Garcia NP, Johansson G, Danielsson B, Larsson PO (1998): Talanta45, 557–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    Skládal PS (1999): Biosens & Bioelectr14, 257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    Everett WR, Rechnitz GA (1998): Anal Chem70, 807–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Wehmeyer KR, Halsall HB, Heineman WR, Volle CP, Chen IW (1986): Anal Chem58, 135–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    Skládal P, Kaláb T (1995): Anal Chim Acta316, 73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    Piras L, Adami M, Fenu S, Dovis M, Nicolini C (1996): Anal Chim Acta335, 127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    Dzantiev BB, Zherdev AV (1996): Biosens & Bioelectr11, 179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    Trau D, Theuerl T, Wilmer M, Meusel M, Spener F (1997): Biosens & Bioelectr12, 499–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    Moisello L, Cremisini C, Segre L, Chiavarini S, Spano M, Kimmel T, Bäumner AJ, Schmid RD (1998): J Agric Food Chem46, 3847–3851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    Keay RW, McNeil CJ (1998): Biosens Bioelectron13, 963–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    Vianello F, Signor L, Pizzariello A, Di Paolo ML, Scarpa M, Hock B, Giersch T, Rigo A (1998): Biosens & Bioelectr13, 45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    Santandreu M (1988): Doctoral Thesis. Universität Autónoma de Barcelona, 211–229Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    Volotovsky V, Nam YJ, Kim N (1997): Sensors and ActuatorsB 42, 233–237Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    Soldatkin AP, Volotovsky V, El’skaya AV, Jaffrezic-Renault N, Martelet C (2000): Anal Chim Acta403, 25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. [63]
    Marty JL, Sode K, Karube I (1992): Electroanalysis4, 249–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. [64]
    Evtugyn GA, Ivanov AN, Gogol EV, Marty JL, Budnikov HC (1999): Anal Chim Acta385, 13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. [65]
    McArdle FA, Nachname Fehlt! KC (1993): Persaud. Analyst118, 419–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. [66]
    de Alwis U, Wilson GS (1987): Anal Chem59, 2766–2789Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    Palmer DA, Xuezhen R, Fernandez-Hernando P, Miller JN (1993): Anal Letters26, 2543–2553Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    Rippeth JJ, Gibson TD, Hart JP, Hartley IC, Nelson G (1997): Analyst122, 1425–1429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. [69]
    Kindervater R, Künnecke W, Schmid RD (1990): Anal Chim Acta234, 113–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. [70]
    Boitieux JL, Groshemy R, Thomas D (1987): Anal Chim Acta197, 229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. [71]
    Huet D, Bourdillon C (1993): Anal Chim Acta272, 205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. [72]
    Ghindilis AL, Krishman R, Atanasov P, Wilkins E (1997): Biosens & Bioelectr12, 415–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. [73]
    Solé S (2000): Doctoral Thesis. Universität Autónoma de Barcelona, pp 165–190Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    Solé S (2000): Doctoral Thesis. Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, pp. 235–257Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ecomed Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Grup de Sensors & Biosensors, Departament de QuímicaUniversität Autònoma de BarcelonaBellaterraSpain

Personalised recommendations