Familial selection and the evolution of social behavior
- 25 Downloads
This paper considers a few frequency models, in the deterministic, nonoverlapping generations case, for traits affecting familial behavior. It is assumed that a Mendelian mutant decreases the drive of offspring of either or both sexes to seek reproduction, so that they will be of more help in raising their sibs. The diploid mode of inheritance has been considered in the case of sex limited expression and equal selective effect in both sexes. In the haplodiploid case only expression limited to either sex is worked out. A selectionist interpretation in terms of different modes of inheritance had been proposed mainly by Hamilton, at a semi-quantitative level, to explain the higher incidence of social behavior in hymenopterans.
There is only some limited qualitative agreement between Hamilton’s tentative results and the more orthodox treatment presented in this paper. Thus an “inclusive fitness” of genes can be defined, but only in a very special approximate case. However exactly the opposite conclusions as Hamilton’s are reached by interpreting our models both from Hamilton’s and from other, more plausible, points of view.
Alternative explanations based on biological preconditions rather than the mode of inheritance are proposed for hymenopteran societies. On the other hand the reasoning in this paper might help to explain systematic differences in social behavior between mammals and birds, especially if they were determined by sex linked characters (points on which no information is available).
KeywordsHaldane Inclusive Fitness Reciprocal Altruism Individual Competition Warm Blooded Vertebrate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Darwin, C. 1859 to 1882.The Origin of Species. John Murray, London.Google Scholar
- Darwin, C. 1871 and 1874.The Descent of Man and Selection in. Relation to Sex. John Murray, London.Google Scholar
- Ghiselin, M. T. 1974.The Economy of Nature and the Evolution of Sex. Berkeley, U.C. Press.Google Scholar
- Haldane, J.B.S. 1924. The Mathematical Theory of Natural and Artificial Selection, I.Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc., 23: 19–41.Google Scholar
- Haldane, J. B. S. 1932.The Causes of Evolution. 1966 reprint, Cornell Un. Press, Ithaca.Google Scholar
- Hamilton, W.D. 1971. Selection of Selfish and Altruistic Behavior in Some Extreme Models, inMan and Beast: Comparative Social Behavior, Smithsonian Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Jayakar, S.D. and Spurway, H. 1967. Reuse of Cells and BrotherSister Mating in Indian Species ofStenodynerus miniatus.J. Bombay. Nat. Hist. Soc., 63: 378.Google Scholar
- Kostitzin, V.A. 1934.Symbiose, Parasitisme at Evolution. Herman, Paris.Google Scholar
- Kostitzin, V.A. 1937.Biologie Mathematique. Armand Colin, Paris.Google Scholar
- Kroptkin, P. 1904.Mutal Aid, a Factor of Evolution. Heinemann, London.Google Scholar
- Lamarck, J. B. 1809.Phylosophie Zoologique. 1968 reprint, Union Generale, Paris.Google Scholar
- Levin, B. and Kilmer, W.I. (MS) Interdemic Slection and the Evolution of Altruism: a Computer Simulation Study. Submitted toEvolution.Google Scholar
- Lorenz, K. 1965.The Evolution and Modification of Behavior. Chicago Un. Press.Google Scholar
- Mainardi, D. 1974.L’Animale Culturale. Rizzoli, Milano.Google Scholar
- Montel, G. 1957.Lecons sûr les recurrences. Gautier-Villars, Paris.Google Scholar
- Orlove, M. J. 1974. A Model of Kin Selection not Invoking Coefficients of Relationship.J. Theor. Biol., 48: 557–577.Google Scholar
- Orlove, M. J. (MS) Some Further Insights into Kin Selection. In Press inJ. Theor. Biol.Google Scholar
- Ponce de Leon, A. and Scudo, F. M. (MS) Observational Learning of Alpaca from Sheep.Google Scholar
- Scudo, F. M. 1967a. L’Accoppiamento Assortative basato sul Fenotipo di Parenti.Ist. Lomb. (Rend. Sci.) B.101: 435–455.Google Scholar
- Scudo, F.M. 1975. Genetics and Behavior. History of the Theories on and Variation. In press inProc. XX Meeting It. Genet. Soc.Google Scholar
- Scudo, F.M. (MS) Vadim A. Kostitzin and Evolutionary Models.Google Scholar
- Wallace, A. R. 1889.Darwinism.1905 edition, Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
- Wickler, W. 1972,The Sexual Code. Doubleday, London.Google Scholar
- Wilson, E.O. 1971.Insect Societies. Belknap, Cambridge.Google Scholar
- Wright, S. 1960, Physiological Genetics, Ecology and Populations and Natural Selection. InEvolution after Darwin, Vol. 1, Chicago Un. Press.Google Scholar