Journal of Genetics

, 15:113 | Cite as

The inheritance of inverse symmetry inLimnaea peregra

  • Cyril Diver
  • A. E. Boycott
  • Sylvia Garstang


It is not claimed that the general hypothesis or its special application, outlined in this paper, can yet be considered as proven; but it is contended that our combined results, here given in their entirety, show an encouragingly close agreement with theoretical expectation and a marked absence of unaccountable developments; and further that they form an adequate basis for preliminary judgment. Lastly the system of inheritance into which the general hypothesis leads us, although in its application it may seem intricate and unduly complex, is in its essence simple and is founded on a not unnatural conception.

In conclusion, I desire to take this opportunity of thanking the Rev. H. Poole and Mr G. C. Robson for their helpful criticism in certain sections of this paper, and Mr Osterstock for photographing the shells. I am also indebted to numerous friends for assistance at various times.

The expenses of this enquiry have been partly met from the Graham Research Fund of the University of London.


General Hypothesis Propol Plate Versus Large Brood Mixed Brood 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Literature Cited

  1. Adams, L. E., 1923. “An attempt to pair a dextral with a sinistralL. pereger.”Journ. of Conchology, Vol. XVII, pp. 61–62.Google Scholar
  2. Baer, K. E. von, 1835. “Selbstbefruchtung an einer hermaphroditischen schnecke beobachtet.”Müller’s Arch. f. Anat. Phys. u. Wiss. Med. p. 224.Google Scholar
  3. Bateson, W., 1913.Problems of Genetics, p. 84.Google Scholar
  4. Bean, W., 1834. (Record of sinistralL. peregra.)Mag. Nat. Hist. Vol. VII, p. 493.Google Scholar
  5. Boycott, A. E., 1917 (a). “Preliminary Note on the Genitaha ofAcanthinula lamel- lata.”Journ. of Conch. Vol. XV, p. 175.Google Scholar
  6. — 1917 (b). “The Genitalia ofAcanthinula aculeata.”Proc. Malac. Soc. Vol. XII, p. 221.Google Scholar
  7. —1922. “A specimen ofLimnaea pereger coiled on the flat.”Ibid, Vol. XV pp. 131–132.Google Scholar
  8. Boycott, A. E. andDiver, C., 1923. “On the inheritance of sinistrality inLimnaea peregra.”Proc. Roy. Soc. B, Vol. XCV, pp. 207–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Call, R. E., 1880. “On Reversed Melanthones.”Amer. Nat. Vol. XIV, p. 207.Google Scholar
  10. Child, C. M., 1923. “Physiological Polarity and Symmetry in Relation to Heredity.”Genetics, Vol. VIII, pp. 336–354.Google Scholar
  11. Cockerell, S. C., 1886. (Record of sinistralL. peregra.)Journ. of Conch. Vol. V, p. 44.Google Scholar
  12. Collier, E., 1913. “Notes on the SectionTachea of Helix.”Journ. of Conch. Vol. XIV, p. 121.Google Scholar
  13. Colton, H. S., 1908. “Some effects of Environment on the growth ofLymnaea columella, Say.”Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Vol. LX, pp. 410et seq.Google Scholar
  14. — 1912. “Lymnaeacolumella and self-fertilization.”Ptoc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Vol. LXIV, pp. 173–183.Google Scholar
  15. — 1918. “Self-fertilization in the air-breathing pond snails.”Biological Bulletin, Vol. XXXV, pp. 48–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Conklyn, E. G., 1897. “The Embrypology of Crepidula.”Journ. Morph. Vol. XIII, No. 1, p. 42.Google Scholar
  17. — 1903. “The Cause of Inverse Symmetry.”Anat. Anz. Vol. XXIII, pp. 577–588.Google Scholar
  18. - 1923.Heredity and Environment. Google Scholar
  19. Cooke, A. H., 1895.Camb. Nat. History, “Molluscs,” pp. 249–250.Google Scholar
  20. Crampton, H. E., 1894. “ Reversal of Cleavage in a Sinistral Gastropod.”Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. pp. 167–169.Google Scholar
  21. - 1917. “Studies on the Variation, Distribution and Evolution of the Genus Partula.”Carnegie Inst. Washington Pub. No. 228.Google Scholar
  22. Daniel, J. E., 1874. “Simultaneous occurrence of five sinistral examples ofHelix aspersa.”Journ. of Conch. Vol. I, p. 50.Google Scholar
  23. Dean, J. D., 1905. (Records of sinistralL. peregra.)Journ. of Conch. Vol. XI, p. 150.Google Scholar
  24. — 1907.Ibid. Vol. XII, p. 44.Google Scholar
  25. De Witz, J., 1916. “Ueber die Erblichkeit der Inversion der Molluskensehale.”Zool. Anz. Vol. XLVIII, pp. 1–3.Google Scholar
  26. Doncaster, L., 1920.An Introduction to the Study of Cytology. Google Scholar
  27. Donovan, E., 1802. (Record of sinistralL. peregra.)Nat. Hist. Brit. Shells, Vol. V, pl. 175.Google Scholar
  28. Drummond, I. M., 1902. “Notes on the Development ofPaludina vivipara.”Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci. Vol. XLVI, p. 120.Google Scholar
  29. Hargreaves, J. A., 1919. “SinistralL. pereger and its progeny.”Journ. of Conch. Vol. XVI, pp. 55–57.Google Scholar
  30. Hutton, W. H., 1919. “ Notes onLimnaea pereger m. sinistrorsum.”Journ. of Conch. Vol. XVI, pp. 58–59.Google Scholar
  31. Ihering, H. von, 1876.Nach. d. deutsch. Malac. Ges. Vol. VIII, p. 49.Google Scholar
  32. Jeffries, J. G., 1859. (Record of sinistralL. peregra.)Brit. Conch. Vol. V, p. 153.Google Scholar
  33. — 1860. “On the Origin of Species.”Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 3rd series, Vol. VI, p. 152.Google Scholar
  34. Johnston, G., 1850.Introduction to Conchology, p. 479.Google Scholar
  35. Kleiner, E., 1912. Inaug. Dissert. Zürich.Google Scholar
  36. Kleinert, M., 1909. “Die Spermatogenese vonHelix (Tachea)nemoralis undhor- tensis.”Jen. Zeitschr. Vol. XLV, pp. 445–498.Google Scholar
  37. Kofoid, C. A., 1894. “On some Laws of Cleavage in Limax.”Proc. Am. Acad. Arts and Sci. Vol. XXIX, pp. 180et seq. Google Scholar
  38. Künkel, K., 1903. “Zuchtversuche mit Linksgewundenen Weinbergschnecke (H. pomatia).”Zool. Anz. Vol. XXVI, pp. 656et seq.Google Scholar
  39. — 1912. “Ein bisher unbekannter grundlegenden Factor für die Auffindung eines Vererbungs Gesetztes bei den Nacktschnecken.”Verh. deutsch Naturf. und Ärtze Abt. f. Zool. u. Ent. Vol. LXXXIII (1911), pp. 437–448.Google Scholar
  40. - 1916.Zur Biologie der Lungenschnecken, pp. 409et seq. Google Scholar
  41. Lang, A., 1896. “Kleiner biologische Beobachtung über die Weinbergschnecke (H. pomatia).”Vierteljahrsschrift Naturf. Gesel. Zürich, pp. 488et seq.Google Scholar
  42. - 1904. “Ueber Vorversuche zu Untersuchungen über die Varietätenbildung vonH. hortensis undH. nemoralis.”Festsch. z. Geburst. E. Haekel, Jena, pp. 439et seq.Google Scholar
  43. — 1911. “Falsche (einseitige) Bastarde vonTachea Arten durch artfremdes Sperma indutzierte Parthenogenesis?”Zeitschr. f. induk. Abstam. u. Vererb. Vol. V, pp. 127–129.Google Scholar
  44. — 1912. “Parthenogenesis oder Selbstbefruchtung bei Tachea.”Ibid. Vol. VIII, pp. 249–251.Google Scholar
  45. Mayer, A. G., 1902. “Some species ofPartula from Tahiti.”Mem. Mus. Compar. Zool. Vol. XXVI, pp. 117et seq. Google Scholar
  46. Nelson, W., 1901. “ReversedLimnaea peregra In Leeds.”Naturalist, pp. 216, 355.Google Scholar
  47. Newman, H. H., 1923.The Physiology of Twinning. Google Scholar
  48. Pelseneer, P., 1920.Les Variations et leur Hérédité chez les Mollusques, Bruxelles (particularly pp. 29–38 and 732–747).Google Scholar
  49. Ramanujam, S., 1922. “Self-fertilization in Mollusca.”Nature (2740), Vol. CIX, p. 593.Google Scholar
  50. Robson, G. C., 1923. “Parthenogenesis in the MolluscPaludestrina jenkinsi.”British Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. I, pp. 65–78.Google Scholar
  51. Semper, K., 1883.Animal Life, pp. 160et seq. Google Scholar
  52. Standen, R., 1892. “Observations on the Reproduction of the Dart during an Attempt to breed from a SinistralHelix aspersa.”Journ of Conch, Vol. VII, pp. 33–38.Google Scholar
  53. — 1905. (Records of sinistralPaludina contecta.)Ibid. Vol. XI, p. 224.Google Scholar
  54. — 1907.Ibid. Vol. XII, p. 68.Google Scholar
  55. Steenberg, C. M., 1917.Vidensk. Medd. fra Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Vol. LXIX, p. 6.Google Scholar
  56. Sturtevant, A. H., 1923. “Inheritance of direction of coiling in Limnaea.”Science, N.B. Vol. LVIII, No. 1601, p. 269.Google Scholar
  57. Taylor, J.W., 1894–1900.Monograph of the Land, and Freshwater Mollusca of the British Isles, Vol. I, pp. 111–112.Google Scholar
  58. - 1906. “Notes on sinistral shells ofL. peregra.”Naturalist, p. 114.Google Scholar
  59. Trechman, C. T., 1906. “L. peregra m.sinistrorsum in Durham.”Naturalist, p. 113.Google Scholar
  60. Watson H., 1920. “The affinities ofPyramidula, etc.”Proc. Malac. Soc. Vol. XIV, p. 17.Google Scholar
  61. — 1923. “Masculine deficiencies in the British Vertigininae.”Ibid. Vol. XV, pp. 270–280.Google Scholar
  62. Welch, R., 1900. “Abnormalities in the shell ofHelix nemoralis.”Irish Nat. Vol. IX, pp. 163–167.Google Scholar
  63. — 1902. “ScalariformHelix nemoralis.”Journ. of Conch Vol. X, pp. 244–246.Google Scholar
  64. White, F. B., 1873. (Record of sinistralL. peregra.)Scot. Nat. Vol. II, p. 207.Google Scholar
  65. Wilson, E. B., 1906.The Cell in Development and Inheritance. Google Scholar
  66. Zur Strassen, O., 1896. “Embryonalentwicklung derAscaris megalocephala.”Arch. f. Entwicklungsmechanik, Vol. III, p. 97.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 1925

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cyril Diver
    • 1
  • A. E. Boycott
    • 1
  • Sylvia Garstang
    • 1
  1. 1.University College Hospital Medical SchoolLondon

Personalised recommendations