Advertisement

Phytoparasitica

, 28:305 | Cite as

Effect of volatiles and crude extracts of different plant materials on egg viability ofmaruca vitrata andclavigralla tomentosicollis

  • S. Ekesi
Research Paper

Abstract

The effect of volatiles and aqueous extracts of black pepper,Piper guineense; neem seed,Azadirachta indica; garlic bulb,Allium sativum; and onion bulb,Allium cepa on egg viability ofMaruca vitrata Fab. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) andClavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Heteroptera: Coreidae) was evaluated in laboratory experiments. Compared with the other treatments, volatiles of black pepper and garlic bulb were superior in reducing hatch of freshly laid (12-h-old) eggs of both species of insects. Volatiles of onion bulb and neem seed had no effect on egg hatch. When aqueous extracts of the various plant materials were tested at 5%, 10% and 15%, extracts of black pepper, neem seed and garlic bulb caused a severe reduction in egg hatch, with black pepper and garlic bulb providing the highest reduction at all concentrations tested in both insects. When black pepper and garlic bulb were compared at 5% for their activity in relation to egg age, the effect of black pepper decreased with increasing egg age but the performance of garlic was consistent across the various age groups tested in both insects. This result is indicative of the potential of using these plant materials and especially garlic for the management ofM. vitrata andC. tomentosicollis.

Key Words

Maruca vitrata Clavigralla tomentosicollis eggs plant materials black pepper fruit neem seed garlic bulb onion bulb volatiles crude extracts control 

References

  1. 1.
    Arnason, J.T., Mackinnon, S., Isman, M.B. and Durst, S. (1992) Insecticides in tropical plants with non- neurotoxic modes of action.Recent Adv. Phytochem. 28:107–131.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ekesi, S. (1999) Insecticide resistance in field populations of the legume pod-borer,Maruca vitrata Fabricius in Nigeria.Int. J. Pest Manage. 45:57–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ekesi, S., Dike, M.C. and Ogunlana, M.O. (1996) Life-fertility tables forMaruca testulalis (Geyer) on cowpea.Niger. J. Entonol. 16:12–15.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ewete, F.K., Arnason, J.T., Larson, J. and Philogène, B.J.R. (1996) Biological activities of extracts from traditionally used Nigerian plants against the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis.Entomol. Exp. Appl. 80:531–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gurusubramanian, S. and Krishna, S.S. (1996) The effect of exposing eggs of four cotton insect pests to volatiles ofAllium sativum (Liliaceae).Bull. Entomol. Res. 86:29–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ivbijaro, M.F. and Agbaje, M. (1986) Insecticidal activities ofPiper guineense Schum and Thonn, andCapsicum species on the bruchid,Callosobruchus maculatus F.Insect Sci. Appl. 68:18–21.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jackai, L.E.N. (1989) A laboratory procedure for rearing the cowpea coreid,Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål. (Hemiptera), using dry cowpea seeds.Bull. Entomol. Res. 79:275–281.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jackai, L.E.N. and Adalla, C.B. (1997) Pest management practices in cowpea: a review.in: Singh, B.B., Mohan-Raj, D.R., Dashiell, K.E. and Jackai, L.E.N. [Eds.] Advances in Cowpea Research. Sayce Publishing, Devon, UK. pp. 240–258.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jain, M.K. and Apitz-Castro, R. (1993) Garlic: aproduct of spilled ambrosia.Curr. Sci. 65:148–156.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mong, T.T. and Sudderuddin, K.F. (1978) Effects of neem tree(Azadirachta indica) extract on diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.).Malays. Appl. Biol. 7:1–6.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Oghiakhe, S. (1996) Effect of cowpea cultivar, plant part and growth phenology on oviposition behaviour of the legume pod borer,Maruca testulalis Geyer (Lep., Pyralidae).J. Appl. Entomol. 120:549–553.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oliver, B. (1959) Nigeria’s useful plants part II. Medicinal plants (4).Niger. Field J. XXIV:160–182.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Panji, C., Grimm, C., Ray, V.W., Witte, L. and Prokschs, P. (1991) Insecticidal constituents from 4 species of the Zingiberaceae.Phytochemistry 44:415–419.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pathak, PH. and Krishna, S.S. (1992) Effect of odours of certain plant oil/leaves on the egg hatchability inCorcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl. 68:139–141.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pathak, P.H. and Krishna, S.S. (1993) Effect of certain plant oil volatiles on the eggs ofEarias vittella (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).Ann. For. 1:165–167.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    SAS Institute (1990) SAS/STAT User’s Guide. Version 6, 4th ed., Vol. 2. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saxena, R.C. (1981) Neem seed oil for leaf folder control.Plant Proc. News (Philippines) 10:48–50.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Scott, W.P. and McKibben, G.H. (1978) Toxicity of black pepper extract to boll weevils.J. Earn. Entomol. 71:343–344.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Singh, S.R. and Jackai, L.E.N. (1985) Insect pests of cowpeas in Africa: their life cycle, economic importance and potential for control.in: Singh, S.R. and Rachie, K.O. [Eds] Cowpea Research, Production and Utilization. John Wiley, New York, NY. pp. 717–231.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Singh, S.R., Jackai, L.E.N., dos Santos, J.H.R. and Adalla, C.B. (1990) Insect pests of cowpeas.in: Singh, S.R. [Ed.] Insect Pests of Tropical Food Legumes. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. pp. 43–89.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Su, H.C.F. (1977) Insecticidal properties of black pepper to rice weevils and cowpea weevils.J. Eton. Entomol. 70:18–21.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zongo, J.O., Vincent, C. and Stewart, R.K. (1993) Effect of neem seed kernel extract on egg and larval survival of the sorghum shootfly,Atherigona soccata Rondani (Dip., Muscidae).J. Appl. Entomol. 115:363- 369.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Crop ProtectionAhmadu Bello UniversityZariaNigeria

Personalised recommendations