, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 401–404 | Cite as

Note: Toxicity of some insecticides onBracon hebetor under laboratory conditions

  • Sohail Ahmed
  • Maqsood Ahmad


Insecticides which were environmentally friendly and the least toxic, were screened against a laboratory strain ofBracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for their suitability for release in IPM of cotton. Concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 ppm of the formulated insecticides in acetone were applied in glass vials and also by a leaf method, whereby cotton leaves were dipped in aqueous solutions of the same concentrations of insecticides. Adult parasitoids were exposed in both methods. According to the LC50 at 24 h exposure, Λ-cyhalothrin and spinosad were the most (7 and 5 ppm) and least (263 and 225 ppm) toxic in the vial and the leaf method, respectively, toB. hebetor. The possible use of the parasitoid for IPM of cotton is discussed.

Key words

Bracon hebetor IPM cotton endosulfan triazophos chlorpyrifos Λ-cyhalothrin cypermethrin spinosad emamectin benzoate indoxacarb azadirachtin 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Arunava, S., Das, A.K., Chowdhury, A., Somchoudhury, A.K., Roy, P., Reddy, al. (1998) Studies on the insecticidal residues in/on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench and their effect on a few parasitoids. Advances in IPM for horticultural crops.Proc. 1st National Symp. on Pest Management in Horticultural Crops: Environmental Manipulation and Thrusts (Banglore, India), pp. 257–265.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baker, J.E., Weaver, D.K., Throne, J.E. and Zettler, J.L. (1995) Resistance to protectant insecticides in two field strains of the stored-products insect parasitoidBracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).J. Econ. Entomol. 88:512–519.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Danfa, A. and Valk, H.C.H.G.V.D. (1999) Laboratory testing ofMetarhizium spp. andBeauveria bassiana on sahelian non-target arthropods.Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 9:187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guddewar, M.B., Shukla, A. and Saini, M.L. (1992) Relative toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids to adults ofBracon hebetor Say (Braconidae; Hymenoptera).Plant Prot. Bull. Faradiabad 44:16–17.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kovalenkov, V.G. and Tyurina, N.M. (1994) Selectivity of pesticides forBracon andElasmus.Zashch. Rast. (Mosc.) 7:9–10.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Malik, A.K., Mansoor, S., Saeed, N.A., Asad, S., Zafar, Y., Stanley, al. (1999) Development of CLCV resistant cotton varieties through genetic engineering. Monogr. Directorate Agric. Inform. Punjab, Pakistan.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mandal, S.K. and Somchoudhury, A.K. (1995) Bioefficacy of commercial formulations of insecticides againstBracon hebetor (Say).Indian J. Entomol. 57:50–54.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matthews, G.A. (1997) Implementing cotton integrated pest management.Exp. Agric. 33:1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nikam, P.K. and Pawar, C.V. (1993) Life tables and intrinsic rate of natural increase ofBracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) population onCorcyra cephalonica (Staint) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a key parasitoid ofHelicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).J. Appl. Entomol. 115:210–213.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Raguraman, S. and Singh, R.P. (1998) Behavioral and physiological effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extract on larval parasitoid,Bracon hebetor.J. Chem. Ecol. 24:1241–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Reddy, G.R.S., Sreelatha and Divakar, B.J. (1997) Toxicity of six insecticides to two species of Bracon.Indian J. Plant Prot. 25:135–136.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Srivastava, M., Paul, A.V.N., Rengasamy, S., Kumar, J. and Parma, R.B.S. (1997) Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts on the larval parasitoidBracon brevicornis Wesm. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).J. Appl. Entomol. 121:51–57.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tillman, P.G. and Mulrooney, J.E. (2000) Effect of selected insecticides on the natural enemiesColeomegilla maculata andHippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae),Geocris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) andBracon mellitor, Cardiochiles nigriceps, andCotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on cotton.J. Econ. Entomol. 93:1638–1643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Toews, M.D. and Subramanyam, B. (2004) Survival of stored product insect natural enemies in spinosad treated wheat.J. Econ. Entomol. 97:1174–1180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yu, S.H., Ryoo, M. and Na, J.H. (1999) Life history ofBracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Indian meal mothPlodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on a dried vegetables commodity.J. Asia-Pacific Entomol. 2:149–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Agricultural EntomologyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations