, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 73–84 | Cite as

Natural occurrence of citrinin in rice grains and its biocontrol byTrichoderma hamatum

  • E. F. Abd-Allah
  • S. M. Ezzat


Paddy rice was sampled from El-Sharkia, El-Gharbia, El-Dakahlia and Kafr El-Shekh governorates, Egypt. Of the 30 samples taken, ten were contaminated with the mycotoxin citrinin. An average of 6.79 × 104 fungal spores per gram rice was found. The isolated fungi represented 47 species and 28 genera. The predominant genera wereAspergillus, Cladosporium andPenicillium. Aspergilli were represented by 22 species;Aspergillus niger andA. flavus had the highest occurrence.Penicillium viridicatum produced the highest amount of citrinin on glucose ammonium nitrate salts broth and rice grains, and hence this isolate was selected as a good producer of citrinin in this study. The presence ofTrichoderma hamatum reduced the amount of citrinin produced byP. viridicatum compared with its respective control. The excessive growth ofT. hamatum onP. viridicatum was increased with time. Viability ofP. viridicatum conidia decreased byT. hamatum with an increase in the incubation period. Chitinases and 1,3-β-glucanase enzyme activity ofT. hamatum increased with extending the incubation period onP. viridicatum mycelia up to maximum values at 72 and 84 h, respectively.T. hamatum led to a decrease in the production of citrinin byP. viridicatum on rice grains compared with the respective control values.

Key words

Trichoderma hamatum Penicillium viridicatum biocontrol citrinin rice mycotoxin 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Seed Pathology, Plant Pathology Research InstituteAgriculture Research CenterGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Dept. of Botany, Faculty of ScienceZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

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