, 36:220 | Cite as

Genetic and biological variations amongPlutella xylostella granulovirus isolates

  • S. Subramanian
  • R. J. Rabindra
  • S. Sithanantham


Success of a baculovirus in the field depends on the selection and utilization of effective isolates of viruses with increased pathogenicity and virulence. Isolates ofPlutella xylostella granuloviruses collected from Kenya and India were compared for genetic variations by restriction endonuclease enzyme analysis and for biological activity based on their median lethal concentration and time-to-kill early- and late-third instars. TheP. xylostella granulovirus isolates in Kenya were more diverse than those in India and were considerably different from the latter, with only 53–61% similarity. The Kenyan and Indian isolates did not differ significantly for their median lethal concentration, but the Kenyan isolate collected from Kibwezi was significantly faster than other isolates in killing early- and late-third instarP. xylostella. Cluster analysis of restriction fragment marker profiles of theP. xylostella granulovirus with other granuloviruses revealed that it grouped into a cluster with Spodoptera litura granulovirus, whereasHelicoverpa armigera andChilo infuscatellus granuloviruses grouped into another cluster. Results of the present study indicate the existence of genetically and biologically diverse isolates ofP. xylostella granulovirus which could be further developed into effective biopesticides for the management of diamondback moth.

Key words

Baculovirus diamondback moth pathogenicity restriction enzymes 


  1. 1.
    Asayama, T. and Osaki, N. (1970) A granulosis virus of the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella.J. Invertebr. Pathol. 15:284–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ayalew, G. (2006) Comparison of yield loss on cabbage from Diamondback mothPlutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) using two insecticides.Crop Prot. 25:915–919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Crook, N.E. (1986) Restriction enzyme analysis of granulosis viruses isolated fromArtogeia rapae andPieris brassicae.J. Gen. Virol. 67:781–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Easwaramoorthy, S. and Jayaraj, S. (1987) Environmental persistence of granulosis virus infecting sugarcane shoot borer,Chilo infuscatellus Snellen.J. Biol. Control 1:31–36.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gryzwacz, D., Parnell, M., Kibata, G., Oduor, G., Poole, J., Ogutu, al. (2004) The granulovirus ofPlutella xylostella (Diamondback Moth, DBM) and its Potential for Control of DBM in Kenya.Proc. International Plutella xylostella Symposium (2002, CIRAD, Montpellier, France), pp. 179–184.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hua, L., Rong, H.Y. and Pang, X. (2001) Effect of pH and UV light on viability ofPlutella xylostella granulosis virus.Chin. J. Biol. Control 17:45–46.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kadir, H.B., Payne, C.C., Crook, N.E., Fenlon, J.S. and Winstanley, D. (1999) The comparative susceptibility of the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella and some other major Lepidopteran pests ofBrassica crops to a range of baculoviruses.Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 9:421–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kadir, H.B., Payne, C.C., Crook, N.E. and Winstanley, D. (1999) Characterization and cross-transmission of baculoviruses of diamond back moth,Plutella xylostella and some other Lepidopteran pests of crops.Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 9:227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kalbfleisch, J.D. and Prentice, R.L. (1980) The Statistical Analysis of Failure Time Data. Wiley, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Keinmeesuke, P., Vattanatangum, P., Sarnthoy, O., Sayampol, B., Saito, T., Nakasnji, al. (1992) Life Table of Diamondback Moth and Its Egg ParasiteTrichogrammatoidea bactrae in Thailand.Proc. Second International Workshop on Management of Diamondback Moth and Other Crucifer Pests, Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (1990, AVRDC, Shanhua, Taiwan), pp. 309–315.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krishnamoorthy, A. (2004) Biological control of diamondback mothPlutella xylostella (L.), an Indian scenario with reference to past and future strategies.Proc. International Plutella xylostella Symposium (2002, CIRAD, Montpellier, France), pp. 204–211.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kumar, C.M., Rabindra, R.J. and Sathiah, N. (2006) Biological activity and characterization of nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates ofSpodoptera litura.Phytoparasitica 34:92–101.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lacey, L.A., Frutos, R., Kaya, H.K. and Vail, P. (2001) Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Do they have a future?Biol. Control 21:230–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mohan, M. and Gujar, G.T. (2000) Susceptibility pattern and development of resistance in the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella L. toBacillus thuringiensis Berl. var.kurstaki in India.Pest Manag. Sci. 56:189–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Parnell, M., Oduor, G., Ong’aro, J., Grzywacz, D., Jones, K.A. and Brown, M. (2002) The isolate variation and virulence of granulovirus of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) isolated in Kenya.J. Invertebr. Pathol. 79:192–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rabindra, R.J., Geetha, N., Renuka, S., Varadharajan, S. and Regupathy, A. (1997) Occurrence of a granulosis virus from two populations ofPlutella xylostella (L.) in India.Proc. Third International MARDI Workshop (1996, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), pp. 113–115.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rashidan, K.K., Nassoury, N., Giannopoulos, P.N., Mauffette, Y. and Guertin, C. (2004) Identification, characterization and phylogenic analysis of conserved genes within theodvp-6e/odv-e56 region ofChoristoneura fumiferana granulovirus.J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 37:206–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rohlf, F.J. (1994) NTSYS-pc: Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System. Version 2.02. State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sayyed, A.H., Schuler, T.H. and Wright, D.J. (2003) Inheritance of resistance to Bt canola in a field-derived population ofPlutella xylostella.Pest Manag. Sci. 59:1197–1202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Smith, G.E. and Summers, M.D. (1978) Analysis of baculovirus genomes with restriction endonucleases.Virology 89:517–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sneath, P.H.A. and Sokal, R.R. (1973) Numerical Taxonomy. W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Su, C.Y. (1991) Field trials of granulosis virus andBacillus thuringiensis for control ofPlutella xylostella andArtogeia rapae.Chin. J. Entomol. 11:174–178.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Subramanian, S., Rabindra, R.J., Palaniswamy, S., Sathiah, N. and Rajasekaran, B. (2005) Impact of granulovirus infection on susceptibility ofSpodoptera litura to insecticides.Biol. Control 33:165–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tabashnik, B.E., Cushing, N.L., Finson, N. and Johnson, M.W. (1990) Field development of resistance toBacillus thuringiensis.J. Econ. Entomol. 83:1671–1676.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Talekar, N. and Shelton, S. (1993) Biology, ecology and management of the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella.Annu. Rev. Entomol. 38:275–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Verkerk, R.H.J. and Wright, D.J. (1996) Multitropic interactions and management of the diamondback moth: a review.Bull. Entomol. Res. 86:205–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vickers, J.M., Cory, J.S. and Entwistle, P.F. (1991) DNA characterisation of eight geographic isolates of granulosis virus from the potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).J. Invertebr. Pathol. 57:334–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Woodward, D.T., Gryzwacz, D. and Winstanley, D. (2004) Biological and molecular characterisation of granuloviruses isolated from Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella, Plutellidae) in Kenya.Proc. International Plutella xylostella Symposium (2002, CIRAD, Montpellier, France), pp. 263–267.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yamada, H. and Yamaguchi, T. (1985) Notes on parasites and predators attacking the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella.Jpn. J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 29:170–173.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhao, J.Z., Collins, H.L., Li, Y.X., Mau, R.F.L., Thompson, G.D., Boykin, al. (2006) Monitoring of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) resistance to spinosad, indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate.J. Econ. Entomol. 99:176–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhao, J.Z., Wu, S., Gu, Y. and Ju, Z. (1996) Strategy of insecticide resistance management in the diamondback moth.Sci. Agric. Sin. 94:541–546.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Subramanian
    • 1
  • R. J. Rabindra
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. Sithanantham
    • 3
  1. 1.Dept. of Agricultural Entomology, Centre for Plant Protection StudiesTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Project Directorate for Biological Control, HebbalBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE)NairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations