, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 523–527 | Cite as

Note: Proline — An inducer of resistance against pearl millet downy mildew disease caused bySclerospora graminicola

  • Sathyanarayana Niranjan Raj
  • Nandini Prasad Shetty
  • Hunthrike Shekar Shetty


In an attempt to find a suitable alternative to the otherwise perilous chemical control strategy of disease management, the amino acid proline was evaluated for its efficiency to elicit resistance in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) against downy mildew disease caused bySclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) Schroet both under greenhouse and field conditions. Proline treatment to seeds at 50 mM concentration for 3 h, significantly enhanced the seed germination and seedling vigor of pearl millet in comparison with the control. The same concentration and duration of seed treatment protected the pearl millet plants from downy mildew by offering 58% protection under greenhouse and 67% protection under field conditions. Studies revealed that 3 days were required for proline-treated plants to develop resistance, which was systemic and was sustained throughout the life of the plants. Apart from disease protection, proline was also found effective in enhancing vegetative and reproductive growth of the plants, as evidenced by the increase in height, fresh weight, leaf area, tillering capacity, 1000-seed weight and grain yield in comparison with the control plants.

Key words

Proline pearl millet downy mildew induced systemic resistance growth promotion 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abdul Baki, A.A. and Anderson, J.D. (1973) Vigor determination in soybean seed by multiple criteria.Crop Sci. 13:630–633.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bates, L.S., Woldren, R.P. and Teare, I.D. (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies.Plant Soil 39:205–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cohen, Y., Ovadia, A. and Oka, Y. (2000) Is induced resistance reversible?Symp. on Induced Resistance to Plant Diseases (Corfu, Greece), p. 68.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Deepak, S.A., Niranjan Raj, S., Ummemura, K., Kono, T. and Shetty, H.S. (2003) Cerebroside as an elicitor for induced resistance against downy mildew pathogen in pearl millet.Ann. Appl. Biol. 143:169–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fought, L. and Kuć, J. (1996) Lack of specificity in plant extracts and chemicals as inducers of systemic resistance in cucumber plants to anthracnose.J. Phytopathol. 144:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Geetha, H.M. and Shetty, H.S. (2002) Induction of resistance in pearl millet against downy mildew disease caused bySclerospora graminicola using benzothiadiazole, calcium chloride and hydrogen peroxide — a comparative evaluation.Crop Prot. 21:601–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Heil, M. and Bostock, R.M. (2002) Induced systemic resistance (ISR) against pathogens in the context of induced plant defenses.Ann. Bot. 89:503–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hong, J.K., Hwang, B.K. and Kim, C.H. (1999) Induction of local and systemic resistance toColletotrichum coccodes in pepper plants by DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid.J. Phytopathol. 149:193–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    ISTA (1993) Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association, International Rules for Seed Testing.Seed Sci. Technol. 21:25–30.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Matysik, J., Alia, Bhalu, B. and Mohanty, P. (2002) Molecular mechanisms of quenching of reactive oxygen species by proline under stress in plants.Curr. Sci. 85:525–532.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Niranjan Raj, S., Chaluvaraju, G., Amruthesh, K.N., Shetty, H.S., Reddy, M.S. and Kloepper, J.W. (2003) Induction of growth promotion and resistance against downy mildew on pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) by rhizobacteria.Plant Dis. 87:380–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Niranjan Raj, S., Deepak, S.A., Basavaraju, P., Shetty, H.S., Reddy, M.S. and Kloepper, J.W. (2003) Comparative performance of formulations of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in growth promotion and downy mildew disease suppression in pearl millet.Crop Prot. 22:579–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shailashree, S., Sarosh, B.R., Vasanthi, N.S. and Shetty, H.S. (2001) Seed treatment withβ-aminobutyric acid protectsPennisetum glaucum systemically fromSclerospora graminicola.Pest Manage. Sci. 57:721–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Singh, S.D. and Gopinath, R. (1985) A seedling inoculation technique for detecting downy mildew resistance in pearl millet.Plant Dis. 69:582–584.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Williams, R.J. (1984) Downy mildew of tropical Ingram, D.S. and Williams, P.H. [Eds.] Advances in Plant Pathology. vol. 2. Academic Press, London, UK. pp. 1–103.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Williams, R.J. and Singh, S.J. (1981) Control of pearl millet downy mildew by seed treatment with metalaxyl.Ann. Appl. Bot. 97:262–268.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sathyanarayana Niranjan Raj
    • 1
  • Nandini Prasad Shetty
    • 1
  • Hunthrike Shekar Shetty
    • 1
  1. 1.Downy Mildew Research Laboratory, Dept. of Studies in Applied Botany, Seed Pathology and BiotechnologyUniversity of MysoreManasagangotri, MysoreIndia

Personalised recommendations