Archives of Pharmacal Research

, Volume 27, Issue 7, pp 720–726 | Cite as

Spectrophotometric determination of nizatidine and ranitidine through charge transfer complex formation

  • M. Walash
  • M. Sharaf-EI Din
  • M. E.- -S. Metwalli
  • M. RedaShabana
Research Articles Articles


Two Spectrophotometric procedures are presented for the determination of two commonly used H2-receptor antagonists, nizatidine (I) and ranitidine hydrochloride (II). The methods are based mainly on charge transfer complexation reaction of these drugs with either ρ-chloranilic acid (ρ-CA) or 2, 3 dichloro-5, 6-dicyanoquinone (DDQ). The produced colored products are quantified spectrophotometrically at 515 and 467 nm in chloranilic acid and DDQ methods, respectively. The molar ratios for the reaction products and the optimum assay conditions were studied. The methods determine the cited drugs in concentration ranges of 20-200 and 20-160 μg/mL for nizatidine and ranges of 20-240 and 20-140 μg/mL for ranitidine with chloranilic acid and DDQ methods, respectively. A more detailed investigation of the complexes formed was made with respect to their composition, association constant, molar absorptivity and free energy change. The proposed procedures were successfully utilized in the determination of the drugs in pharmaceutical preparations. The standard addition method was applied by adding nizatidine and ranitidine to the previously analyzed tablets or capsules. The recovery of each drug was calculated by comparing the concentration obtained from the spiked mixtures with those of the pure drug. The results of analysis of commercial tablets and the recovery study (standard addition method) of the cited drugs suggested that there is no interference from any excipients, which are present in tablets or capsules. Statistical comparison of the results was performed with regard to accuracy and precision using student’st-test andF-ratio at 95% confidence level. There is no significant difference between the reported and proposed methods with regard to accuracy and precision.

Key words

Ranitidine Nizatidine Charge transfer complexation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdel Hamid, M. E, Abdel Salam, M., Mahrous, M. S., and Abdel-Khalek, M. M., Utility of 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodi-methan andp-chloranilic acid in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of pentazocine.Talanta, 36, 1002–1004 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal, S. P. and ElSayed, M. A.-H., Unity of pi-acceptors in charge-transfer complexation of alkaloids: chloranilic acid as spectrophotometric titrant in non-aqueous media.Analyst, 106, 1157–1162 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Ghannam, S. and Belal, F., Spectrophotometric determi-. nation of three anti-ulcer drugs through charge-transfer complexation.J. AOAC Int., 85, 1003 (2002).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bourne, R. and Burgess, C., Effect of temperature on a multicomponent ultra-violet-spectrometric determination and the development of a temperature-independent assay procedure.Analyst, 120, 2075–2080 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Du, L. M., Fan, Z. F., and Zhang, R. F., Fluorescence spectrometry determination of fleroxacin by charge-transfer reaction.Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi, 23, 328–330 (2003).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Guvener, B., Spectrophotometric determination method of ranitidine hydrochloride.Acta Pharm. Turc., 28, 35–37 (1986).Google Scholar
  7. Hassan, E. M. and Belal, F., Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of nizatidine and ranitidine in pharmaceutical preparations.J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 27, 31–38 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kelani, K. M., Aziz, A. M., Hegazy, M. A., and Farrah, L. A., Determination of cimetidine, famotidine, and ranitidine hydrochloride in the presence of their sulfoxide derivatives in pure and dosage forms by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and scanning densitometry.J. AOAC Int., 85, 1015 (2002).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Koricanac, Z., Jovanovic, T., and Stankovic, B., Determination of nizatidine in pharmaceutical formulations by potentiometric titration.Pharmazie, 50, 151–152 (1995).Google Scholar
  10. Martin, A., Physical Pharmacy, fourth ed, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, London, pp. 260–261 (1993).Google Scholar
  11. Martin, A. N., Swarbrick, J., and Cammarata, A., Physical Pharmacy, third ed. Lee and Febiger, Philadelphia, pp. 344–346 (1983).Google Scholar
  12. Mathew, M., Das-Gupta, V., and Bethea, C., Quantitation of nizatidine in capsules using high-performance liquid chroma-tography.Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm., 19, 1497–1503 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Miller, J. C. and Miller, J. N., Statistics for Analytical Chemistry, Wiley, New York (1984).Google Scholar
  14. Nagaralli, B. S., Melwanki, M. B., and Seetharamappa, J., Sensitive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of amoxycillin, ciprofloxacin and piroxicam in pure and pharmaceutical formulations.J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 29, 859 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nikolic, K., Stankovic, B., and Bogavac, M., Coulometric determination of ranitidine hydrochloride.Pharmazie, 50, 301–302 (1995).Google Scholar
  16. Rustum, A. M., Rapid and sensitive HPLC determination of ranitidine in plasma.l Application to pharmacokinetics study.J. Liq. Chromatogr., 11, 3447–3456 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Walash, M. I., Belal, F., Ibrahim, F., Hefnawy, M., and Eid, M., Kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of nizatidine in pharmaceuticals.J. AOAC Int., 85, 1316 (2002).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Walash
    • 1
  • M. Sharaf-EI Din
    • 1
  • M. E.- -S. Metwalli
    • 1
  • M. RedaShabana
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of PharmacyMansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt

Personalised recommendations