Screening and Scenarios of Traffic Emissions at Trier, Germany

  • Jürgen Junk
  • Alfred Helbig
  • Andreas Krein
Research Articles


Scope and Background

In the course of the European Council Directive on permissible air pollutant limit values, valid starting from 2005 there is an urgent call for action, particularly for fine dust (PM10). Current investigations (Junk & Helbig 2003, Reuter & Baumüller 2003) show that the limit values in certain places in congested areas are exceeded. Only if it is possible to locate these Hot Spots purposeful measures to reduce the ambient air pollution can be conducted. For an efficient identification of these Hot Spots numerical computer models or establishing special measurements networks are too expensive. Using the statistical model STREET 5.0 (KTT 2003) a cost-effective screening of the air pollution situation caused by the traffic can be done.


STREET is based on the 3-dimensional micro-scale non-hydrostatic flow- and dispersion model MISCAM (Eichhorn 1989). The results of over 100.000 different calculations with MISCAM are stored in a Database and used to calculate the emissions with STREET. In collaboration with the city council of Trier more than 150 streets were investigated, mapped, and calculated. A special urban climate measuring network supplies the necessary meteorological input data about the wind field and precipitation events in the valley of the Moselle. Information about road width and road orientation as well as building density was derived from aerial photographs. Traffic censuses and mobile air pollutants measurements supplied the remaining input data. We calculated the mean annual air pollutant concentrations for NO2, CO, SO2, O3, benzene as well as PM10-.


A comparison of the model results with the values obtained from the stations of the central emission measuring network of Rhineland-Palatinate (ZIMEN, annual report 2002) shows very good agreements. The model was not only used to calculate the annual air pollutant but also for urban planning and management. The absolute level of the air pollutant is mainly dependent on the amount of traffic in the street canyons. Therefore four different case-scenarios with varying quantity of traffic were calculated and interpreted for each street. The results of the calculation show that on the basis of the mean values for both NO2 and benzene, it is not to be expected that the limits will be exceeded significantly.


Furthermore the model can be used to find the maximum tolerable numbers of cars for a street without exceeding the air pollutant thresholds.


Benzene Germany GIS numerical modelling NO2 PM10 traffic emissions urban air pollution 


  1. Bigalke K (1998): Zur statistischen Auswertung mikroskaliger Immissions- prognosen. Gefahrstoffe / Reinhaltung der Luft 6, 239–246Google Scholar
  2. Brauer M, Hoek G, Vliet P, Meliefste K, Fischer P, Gehring U, Heinrich J, Cyrys J, Bellander T, Lewne M, Brunekreef B (2003): Estimating Long-Term Average Particulate Air Pollution Concentrations: Application of Traffic Indicators and Geographic Information Systems. Epidemiology 14, 228–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Diegmann V, Hartmann U, Pfäfflin F (2003): Landesweites Screening der Luftschadstoffsituation an Straßen in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Tagungsband Fachtagung METTOOLS V, 6-8 October 2003, Essen, 105–107Google Scholar
  4. Eichhorn J (1989): Entwicklung und Anwendung eines dreidimensionalen mikroskaligen Stadtklima-Modells. Dissertation, Universität Mainz EU-Richtlinie 1999/30/EG des Rates vom 22. April 1999 über Grenzwerte für Schwefeldioxid, Stickstoffdioxid, Partikel und Blei in der Luft. EG Nr. L 163 vom 29. Juni 1999, 41Google Scholar
  5. Guderian R (2000): Atmosphäre - Handbuch der Umweltveränderungen und ÖkotoxikologieGoogle Scholar
  6. Heinrich U (2000): Mögliche Wirkungsmechanismen von Dieselruß und anderen Partikeln. Feinstaub - Die Situation in Deutschland nach der EU-Tochter-Richtlinie. WaBoLu Heft 2/00, Umweltbundesamt BerlinGoogle Scholar
  7. Helbig A, Junk J (2003): The influence of the Moselle Valley on the urban air quality at Trier / Germany. Book of Abstracts. Fifth International Conference on Urban Climate (ICUC 5) 2003 Lodz (Poland), 189Google Scholar
  8. Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Verhoeff A (2000): Daily Mortality and Air Pollution in the Netherlands. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Asociation 50, 1380–1389Google Scholar
  9. Junk J, Helbig A (2003): Die PM10-Staubbelastung in Rheinland-Pfalz. Gefahrstoffe / Reinhaltung der Luft 1/2, 43–47Google Scholar
  10. Junk J, Helbig A (2003): Heat island and thermal comfort in the city of Trier. Book of Abstracts. Fifth International Conference on Urban Climate (ICUC 5) 2003 Lodz (Poland), 175Google Scholar
  11. Klemm RJ, Mason RM, Heilig CM (2000): Is Daily Mortality Associated Specifically with Fine Particles Data Reconstruction and Replication of Analyses. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Asociation 50, 1215–1222Google Scholar
  12. Kunz Technologie Transfer (KTT) (2003): Umweltberatung und Software Dr. Kunz GmbHGoogle Scholar
  13. Landesamt für Umweltschutz und Gewerbeaufsicht (2002): Jahresbericht 2001 Zentrales Immissions-Messnetz - ZIMEN. Eigenverlag, MainzGoogle Scholar
  14. Lipfert FW, Morris SC, Wyzga RE (2000): Daily Mortality in the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area and Size-Classified Particulate Matter. Journal of the Air & Waster Management Association 50, 1501–1513Google Scholar
  15. Pfeiffer, Frank, Kost et al. (1995): Das Screening-Modell STREET - Lufthy-gienische Beurteilung der verkehrsbedingten Immissionen von Straßen und Kreuzungen im Hinblick auf §40 (2) Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz - Wissenschaftliche Dokumentation. TÜV Energie- und Umwelt GmbH, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  16. Reuter U, Baumüller J (2003): Europäische Anforderungen an die Luftqualität - Fakten und Konsequenzen. Tagungsband Fachtagung METTOOLS V, 6–8 October 2003, Essen, 88–91Google Scholar
  17. Samet M, Dominici F, Curriero FC, Coursac I, Zeger SZ (2000): Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities, 1987–1994. The New England Journal of Medicine 343 (24) 1742–1749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. UBA Umweltbundesamt (1999): Handbuch für Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs, Ver. 1.2, Infras, BernGoogle Scholar
  19. Wordley J, Walter S, Ayres JG (1997): Short term variations in hospital admissions and mortality and particulate air pollution. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 54, 108–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Ecomed Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Geography, Dept. of ClimatologyUniversity of TrierGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of Geography, Dept. of HydrologyUniversity of TrierGermany

Personalised recommendations