A framework for actualising normalisation data in LCA: Experiences in the Netherlands

  • Leo Breedveld
  • Marije Lafleur
  • Hans Blonk
LCA methodology


In LCA, normalisation is applied to quantify the relative size of the impact scores. Several sets of normalisation data exist in the Netherlands, which all have a certain degree of unreliability. The purpose of this study is to actualise Dutch normalisation data and to make a framework for deriving these data. In this study normalisation data are calculated for three different levels in order to give the LCA practitioner a more extended basis for preparing the interpretation process. The first level of normalisation contains all impacts relating to activities that take place within the Dutch territory. The second level is based on the Dutch final consumption, which means that import and export are taken into account. The third level is an attempt to estimate impacts in Europe based on European data if possible, and otherwise based on extrapolation from the Dutch situation.


Impact assessment Life Cycle Assessment Netherlands normalisation data 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    ISO (1997): Committee Draft ISO/CD 14042.33., July 1998. ISO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Consou, F. (1993): Guidelines for life-cycle assessment: a ‘Code of Practice’. SETAC, Brussels, 1993Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Heijungs, R. (1997): Normalisation of impact scores in LCA: what, why and how? In: ökobilanzen, Trends und Perspektiven. Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker, Frankfurt am MainGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    GuinÉe, J. (1993): Data for Normalisation Step within Life Cycle Assessment of Products, CML paper no. 14, december 1993. CML, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    TNO (1997): Meerjarenplan gevaarlijk afval 2, VROM, IPO, TNO-STB, DelftGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Blonk, T.J.;H. van Ewijk (1996): Verkennende LCA nautische baggerspecie. IVAM ER, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    DHV (1995): Milieu en veiligheid geleide rail (Mirail). Rapportnummer LV/SE95.2570, November 1995, AmersfoortGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Blonk, T.J. et al. (1997): Drie referentieniveaus voor normalisatie in LCA: Nederlands grondgebied 1993/1994, Nederlandse eindconsumptie 1993/1994, West-Europees grondgebied begin jaren 1990. RIZA-werkdocument 97.11 Ox, LelystadGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Heijungs, R. et al. (1992): Environmental life cycle assessment, Guide & Backgrounds, October 1992, CML, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    ER (1994): Emissies naar lucht en water in Nederland in 1993 per bedrijfs- en doelgroep: elektronische versie. Den HaagGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    ER(1994): Emissies naar lucht en water in Nederland in 1993 per 3-cijferige SBI: elektronische versie. Den HaagGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    ER (1994): Emissies naar bodem in Nederland in 1993: elektronische versie. Den HaagGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    ER (1995): Emissies in Nederland, trends, thema’s en doelgroe- pen 1993 en ramingen 1994: Publicatiereeks Emissieregistratie, nr. 26; VROM, DGR, LNV, RIVM, CBS; October 1995, Den HaagGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    CBS (1994): CBS-gewasbescherming: Gewasbescherming in de land- en tuinbouw, 1992, chemische, mechanische en biologische bestrijding. CBS-publicaties, ISBN 906786817, Den HaagGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    CBS (1994): CBS-milieustatistieken: Algemene milieustatistieken voor Nederland 1994. CBS-publicaties, 1994, ISBN 903571664 7, Den HaagGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    CBS-NEH (1994): De Nederlandse energiehuishouding, jaarcijfers 1993. CBS-publicaties, ISBN 903571652 3, Den HaagGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    CBS-NEH (1995): De Nederlandse energiehuishouding, jaarcijfers 1994, deel 1 en 2. CBS-publicaties, ISBN 9067868078, Den HaagGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Nefyto (1992): Landbouw en chemische gewasbescherming in cijfersGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    RIZA (1996): Bestrijdingsmiddelen: een analyse van de problematiek in aquatisch milieu. RIZA nota nr. 96.040, LelystadGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    AIS (1995): Afvalverwerking in Nederland 1994”; AAO/ RIVM/WAV, rapportnr. AAP 95-22Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Leontief, W. (1936): Quantitative input-output relations in the economic systems of the United States. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol 18, pp. 105–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    CBS (1994): CBS-nationale rekeningen: Nationale rekeningen 1993, Aanhangel 4.1: Relatie tussen de regels van de IO-tabel en de SBI 1974. CBS, ISBN 903571623 X, Voorburg/HeerlenGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    CBS (1982): CBS-bedrijfstelling: Standaard bedrijfsindeling, bedrijfstelling 1978 deel C. Alfabetische index per bedrijfssubgroep. CBS; Voorburg/HeerlenGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    CBS-SBI (1993): Standaard bedrijfsindeling (sbi 1993), overzicht en schakelschema’s. CBS, ISBN 906786629 6, Voorburg/HeerlenGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    CBS (1993): CBS-tabellen: Elektronische versie van CBS-tabellen, zoals opgesomd in Bijlage 1, B 1.3. Den HaagGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Corinair (1996): Corinair 90 summary report no. 2. Report to the European Environment Agency from the European Topic Centre on air emissions, final draft January 1996, EEA Copenhagen, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Goedkoop, M. (1997): Simapro 4.0. PRé Consultants B.V., Amersfoort, the NetherlandsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Ecomed Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA)LelystadThe Netherlands
  2. 2.IVAM Environmental Research (currently working at ECN)The Netherlands
  3. 3.IVAM Environmental Research (currently working for the Dutch eco-labelling system)The Netherlands

Personalised recommendations