Archives of Pharmacal Research

, Volume 25, Issue 5, pp 652–654 | Cite as

Brine shrimp lethality of the compounds fromPhryma leptostachya L

  • SangMyung Lee
  • ByungSun Min
  • YungHee Kho
Research Articles Articles


Brine shrimp assay-guided fractionation and isolation of the EtOAc soluble fraction ofPhryma leptostachya L. (Phrymacaceae) gave two active compounds, phrymarolin II (1) and ursolic acid (2), which were identified by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 exhibited potent lethality with LD50 value of 0.0013 μg/ml, whereas2 showed moderate lethality with LD50 value of 27.0 μg/ml against brine shrimp. The cytotoxic activities of1 and2 were also evaluated against one murine and five human cancer cell lines employing the sulforhodaminB (SRB) method. Compound2 exhibited cytotoxic activity against L1210 and SK-MEL-2 cells with ED50 values of 3.70 and 9.27 μg/ml, respectively, whereas1 was devoid of any cytotoxic activity against all cancer cells tested.

Key words

Phryma leptostachya L Brine shrimp Cytotoxicity Phrymarolin II Ursolic acid 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, J.E., Goetz, CM., McLaughlin, J.L., Suffness, M., A blind comparison of simple bench-top bioassays and human tumor cell cytotoxicities as antitumor prescreens.Phytochem. Anal., 2, 107–111 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borowitz, J.L., McLaughlin, J.L., Evidence for calcium channels in brine shrimp: diltiazem protects shrimp against cadmium.Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 48, 435–440 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fatope, M.O., Ibrahim, H., Takeda, Y., Screening of higher plants reputed as pesticides using the brine shrimp lethality assay.International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 31, 250–254 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ishibashi, F., Taniguchi, E., Synthesis and absolute configuration of the insecticidal sesquilignan (+)-haedoxan A.Phytochemistry, 49, 613–622 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kwon, B.M., Lee, S.H., Choi, S.U., Park, S.H., Lee, CO., Cho, Y.K., Sing, N.D., Bok, S.H., Synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of cinnamaldehydes to human solid tumor cells.Arch. Pharm. Res., 21, 147–152 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. McLaughlin, J.L., Chang, C.J., Smith, D.L., Bench-top bioassays for the discovery of bioactive natural products: an update.Studies in Natural Products Chemistry. Vol. 9. pp. 383–490, Ed. Atta-ur-Rahman. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1991).Google Scholar
  7. Meyer, B.N., Ferrigni, N.R., Putnam, J.E., Jacobsen, L.B., Nichols, D.E., McLaughlin, J.L., Brine shrimp: a convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents.Planta Med., 45, 31–34 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Min, B.S., Kim, Y.H., Lee, S.M., Jung, H.J., Lee, J.S., Na, M.K., Lee, CO., Lee, J.P., Bae, K.H., Cytotoxic triterpenes from Crataegus pinnatifida.Arch. Pharm. Res., 23, 155–158 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ozala, T., Vuorela, P., Kivranta, J., Vuorela, H., Hiltunen, R., A bioassay usingArtemia salina for detecting phototoxicity of plant coumarins.Planta Med., 65, 715–718 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Skehan, P., Storeng, R., Schudiero, D.A., Monk, A., McMahan, J., Vistica, D., Warren, J.T., Bokesch, H., Kenny, S., atBoyd, M.R., New colorimetric cytotoxicity assay for anticancer drug screening.J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 82, 1107–1112 (1990)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Solis, P.N., Wright, C.W., Anderson, M.M., Gupta, M.P., Phillipson, J.D., A microwell cytotoxicity assay using Artemia salina (brine shrimp).Planta Med., 59, 250–252 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Taniguchi, E., Oshima, Y., The structure of a novel lignan, phrymarolin-ll fro.Phryma leptostachya L.Agr. Biol. Chem., 33, 466–68 (1969).Google Scholar
  13. Taniguchi, E., Oshima, Y., Phrymarolin-I, a novel lignan fro.Phryma leptostachya L.Agr. Biol. Chem., 36, 1013–1025 (1972).Google Scholar
  14. Watts, S.A., Yeh, E.W., Henry, R.P., Hypoosmotic stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in the brine shrim.Artemia franciscana.The Journal of Experimental Zoology, 274, 15–22 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Zai, C.L., Chaves, P.P.G., Queiroz, R., Oliveira, A.B., de Cardoso, J.E., Anjos, A.M.G., Grandi, T.S.M., Brine shrimp lethality assay as a prescreening system for anti-Trypanosoma cruziactivity.Phytomed., 2, 47–50 (1995).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and BiotechnologyDaejonKorea

Personalised recommendations