Advertisement

DNA Molecular profiling: a new approach to quality control of chinese drugs

  • Hui Cao
  • Yuping Liu
  • Komatsu Katsuko 
  • But Paul Pui-Hay 
  • Shaw Pang-Chui 
Research progress
  • 53 Downloads

Conclusions

DNA technology based molecular profiling provides the ultimate and definitive means of authentication for Chinese drugs. RFLP, RP-PCR and microsatellite-SSR examine the whole genome. With the appropriate primer, it is in principle possible to differentiate closely related species and even one individual from another. PCR-SR, PCR-RFLP, AFLP, SCAR, DALP and DNA sequencing examine a defined region on the genome and produce well-defined conclusions. Since different regions on the genome evolve to different extents, by choosing the target DNA carefully, organisms of different systematic levels can be compared. Of these molecular techniques mentioned above, genomic fingerprints and DNA sequences are equally successful in identification of Chinese drugs. Although RFLP, RP-PCR methods do not require prior to genetic background of the genome and can detect DNA polymorphism, the reliability of these fingerprint results can be greatly influenced by experimental conditions. DNA sequencing method focuses on a defined locus on the genome and may provide a definitive means for authentication of Chinese drugs. We, therefore, conclude that it is essential to combine genomic fingerprinting with DNA sequencing analysis in order to increase the accuracy of quality control.

Keywords

Internal Transcribe Spacer Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Amplify Fragment Length Polymorphism Panax Ginseng American Ginseng 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Mizukami H, Ohbayashi K, Umetsu K, et al. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of medicinal plants and crude drugs. II. Analysis ofGlehnia littoralis of different geographical origin. Biol Pharm Bull 1993; 16:611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mizukami H, Shimizu R, Konda H, et al. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of rDNA and variation of essential oil composition inAtractylodes plants. Biol Pharm Bull 1996; 19:577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yamazaki M, Sato A, Shimomura K, et al. Genetic relationships amongGlycyrrhiza plants determined by RAPD and RFLP analyses. Biol Pharm Bull 1994; 17:1529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ho ISH, Leung FC. Isolation of DNA fingerprinting probe from Panax ginseng. Abstracts of Symposium on Chinese Medicine and Public Health, Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong, 1996:34.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Orford SJ, Scott NS, Timmis JN. A hypervariable middle repetitive DNA sequence fromCitrus. Theor Appl Genet 1995;91:1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shaw PC and But PPH. Authentication ofPanax species and their adulterants by random-primed polymerase chain reaction. Planta Med 1995; 61:466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Park SY, Shin CS, Shin EM, et al. Studies on the genetic diversity amongPanax species andPanax ginseng using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Acta Horticulturae 1995;390:177.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    CAO H, But PPH, Shaw, PC. Authentication of the Chinese drug ”Kudidan” (Herba Elephantopi) and its substitutes using random primed polymerase chain reaction. Acta Pharm Sin 1996;31:543.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    CAO H, But PPHand Shaw PC. A molecular approach to identification of Chinese drug ”Pugongying”(Herba Taraxaci) by DNA fingerprinting using random primed PCR. J Chin Pharm Sci 1996;5:186.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yamasaki M, Sato A, Shimomura K, et al. Extraction of DNA and RAPD analysis from dried licorice root. Natural Med 1995; 49:488.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cheng KT, Chang HC, Su CH, et al. Identification of dried rhizomes ofCoptis species using random amplified polymorphic DNA. Bot Bull Acad Sin (Taiwan) 1997;38:241.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kohjyouma M, Iida O, Yoshida N, et al. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis ofAngelica acutiloba and its varieties. Natural Med 1998; 52:130.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Huang LQ, Wang M, Fu GF, et al. RAPD analysis of germplasm resources of Chinese drug ”Baizhi” (Radix Angelicae Duhuricae). China J Chin Mat Med 1999; 24:457.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huang LQ, Wang M, Zhou CZ, et al. Problems and solutions in the use of RAPD to the identification of the Chinese drugs ”Xixin” (Herba Asari) and its substitutes. Acta Pharm Sin 1998; 33:778.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang YB, Ngan FN, Wang ZT, et al. Random primed polymerase chain reaction differentiatesCodonopsis pilosula from different localities. Planta Med 1999;65:157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cheng KT, Su CH, Chang HC, et al. Differentiation of genuine and counterfeits ofCordyceps species using random amplified polymorphic DNA. Planta Med 1998; 64:451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kohjyouma M, Nakajima S, Namera A, et al. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and variation of essential oil components ofAtractylodes plants. Biol Pharm Bull 1997; 20:502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nakai R, Shoyama Yand Shirashi S. Genetic characterization ofEpimedium species using random amplified polymorphic DNA and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnosis. Biol Pharm Bull 1996; 19:67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Huang LQ, Wang M, Yang B, et al. Authentication of the Chinese drug ”Tianhuafen” (Radix Trichosanthes) and its adulterants and substitutes using random amplified polymorphic DNA. Chinese J Pharm Anal 1999; 19:233.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang YQ, Zhou KY. A preliminary study on the identification of crude snake drugs by molecular genetic markers. Acta Pharm Sin 1997;32:384.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cheng KT, Tsay HS, Chen CF, et al. Determination of the components in a Chinese prescription, Yupingfeng San, by RAPD analysis. Planta Med 1998; 64:563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shaw PC, Ha WY, Wang J, et al. Application in authentication of oriental ginseng and American ginseng by AFLP fingerprinting. Abstract of 4th Symposium on Chinese Medicinal Materials, Chengdu: West China Medical University, 1998:15.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cheng HF, Lai B, Chan SC, et al. Molecular differentiation ofAtractylodes drugs by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and PCR-selective restriction analysis on the 18S-5.8S rDNA intratranscribed spacer 1 gene. J Food Drug Anal (Taiwan) 1997;5:319.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liston A. Variation in the chloroplast genesrpoC1 andrpoC2 of the genusAstragalus (Fabaceae): Evidence from restriction site mapping of a PCR-amplified fragment. Am J Bot 1992;79:365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wu P, Zhou KY, Zhang ZH, et al. Molecular genetic marker identification of traditional Chinese drugHippocampus. Acta Pharm Sin 1998; 33:226.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fushimi H, Komatsu K, Isobe M, et al. Application of PCR-RFLP and MASA analyses on 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence for the identification of three ginseng drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 1997; 20:765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ngan FN, Shaw PC, But PPH, et al. Molecular authentication ofPanax species. Phytochemistry 1999; 50:787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang JY, Wang W, Su B, et al. Study on identification of chicken brisson using DNA sequence analysis. J China Pharm Univ 1996; 27:471.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang JY, He GX, Fu W, et al. Extraction and sequencing of trace DNA from Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum. China J Chin Mat Med 1997;22:579.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wu P, Zhou KY, Xu LS, et al. Molecular identification of the Chinese drug turtle shells. Acta Pharm Sin 1998; 33:304.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wu P, Zhou KY, Xu LS, et al. Identification of traditional Chinese crude drug turtle shell using PCR product direct sequencing method. J China Pharm Univ 1998;29:28.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Xiong LJ, Wang JY, Yi JW. Identification of the placenta by determining its sequences of mtDNA. Chin Pharm J 1997;32(suppl):41.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang YQ, Zhou KY, Xu LS, et al. Sequencing of cyt b gene fragments and PCR identification of ”Jinqian Baihuashe” (Bungarus Parvus) and its adulterants. Acta Pharm Sin 1998; 33:941.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang YQ, Zhou KY, Xu LS, et al. Authentication of the Chinese crude drug ”Wushaoshe”(Zaocys dhumnades) and its substitutes by DNA sequencing analysis. Acta Pharm Sin 1999; 34:67.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hayashimoto A, Nishimura N, Kokusenya Y, et al. Studies on ” signal” constituents for evaluation of animal crude drugs. IV: Application of DNA analytical technique to quality evaluation of medicines containing animal crude drugs. Natural Med 1998;52:38.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mizukami H. Amplification and sequence of a 5S-rRNA gene spacer region from the crude drug ”angelica root”. Biol Pharm Bull 1995; 18:1299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mizukami H, Hao BS, Tanaka T. Nucleotide sequence of 5S-rDNA intergenic spacer region inAngelica acutiloba. Natural Med 1997;51:376.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fushimi H, Komatsu K, Isobe M, et al. 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of threePanax species and the corresponding ginseng drugs. Biol Pharm Bull 1996; 19:1350.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wojciechowski MF, Sanderson MJ, Baldwin BG, et al. Monophyly of aneuploidAstragalus (Fabaceae): Evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Am J Bot 1993; 80:711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fu ZR, Wang J, Zhang YB, et al. Differentiation of medicinalCodonopsis species from adulterants by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Planta Med 1999; 65:648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sang T, Crawford DJ, Stuessy T. Documentation of reticulate evolution in peonies (Paeonia) using internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA: Implications for biogeography and concerted evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:6813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wen J, Zimmer EA. Phylogeny and biogeography ofPanax L. (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae): Inferences from ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Mol Phylogenet Evol 1996;6:167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sugimoto N, Kiuchi F, Mikage M, et al. DNA profiling ofAcorus calamus chemotypes differing in essential oil compositions. Biol Pharm Bull 1999; 22:481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cai ZH, Li P, Dong TTX, et al. Molecular diversity of 5S- rRNA spacer domain inFritillaria species revealed by PCR analysis. Planta Med 1999; 65:360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chen YQ, Qu LH, Zhou H, et al. Sequence analysis of 25S rDNA from Chinese medicinal plant ”Duzhong”(Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.). China J Chin Mat Med 1998;23:707.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kondo K, Terabayashi S, Higuchi M, et al. Discrimination between ”Banxia” and ”Tiannanxing” based onrbc L sequences. Natural Med 1998;52:253.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hayashi H, Hosono N, Kondo M, et al. Phylogenetic relationship ofGlycyrrhiza plants based onrbc L sequences. Biol Pharm Bull 1998;21:782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mizukami H, Shimizu R, Kohjyouma M, et al. Phylogenetic analysis ofAtractylodes plants based on chloroplasttrn K sequence. Boil Pharm Bull 1998; 21:474.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ngan FN, Ha WY, Wong CS, et al. Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR): A new tool for authenticating ginsengs. Abstract of International Ginseng Conference-’ 99 Hong Kong. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1999:90.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ha WY, Ngan FN, Shaw PC, et al. Exploration of the genetic polymorphism inPanax ginseng andP. quinquefolius by AFLP and DALP. Abstract of International Ginseng Conference-’ 99 Hong Kong. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1999:851.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine Press 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hui Cao
    • 1
    • 4
  • Yuping Liu
    • 1
    • 4
  • Komatsu Katsuko 
    • 2
  • But Paul Pui-Hay 
    • 3
  • Shaw Pang-Chui 
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Chinese Materia MedicaChina Academy of TCMBeijing
  2. 2.Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical UniversityJapan
  3. 3.The Chinese University of Hong KongHKSAR
  4. 4.Now are in the Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical UniveristyJapan

Personalised recommendations