The Botanical Review

, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp 413–446 | Cite as

Southern swamps and marshes

  • William T. Penfound


Botanical Review Pure Stand White Cedar Dismal Swamp Black Mangrove 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Ackerman, A. The white cedar of the Dismal Swamp. Va. For. Publ.30: 1–21. 1932.Google Scholar
  2. Albrecht, W. A. Calcium-potassium-phosphorus relation as a possible factor in ecological array of plants. Jour. Am. Soc. Agron.32: 411–418. 1940.Google Scholar
  3. Beaven, G. F. andH. J. Ousting. Pocomoke Swamp: a study of a cypress swamp on the eastern shore of Maryland. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club66: 367–389. 1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowman, H. H. M. The ecology and physiology of the red mangrove. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc.56: 589–672. 1917.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, C. A. The vegetation of the Indian mounds, middens, and marshes in Plaquemines and St. Bernard Parishes. La. Dept. Cons., Bull. 8: 423–440. 1936.Google Scholar
  6. —. Vegetation and lake level correlations at Catahoula Lake, Louisiana. Geog. Rev.33: 435–445. 1943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bruner, W. E. The vegetation of Oklahoma. Ecol. Monogr.1: 99–188. 1931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buell, M. F. Peat formation in the Carolina bays. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club66: 483–487. 1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. — andR. L. Cain. The successional role of southern white cedar,Chamaecyparis thyoides, in southeastern North Carolina. Ecology24: 85–93. 1943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis, J. H. Aquatic plant communities of Reelfoot Lake. Rep. Reelfoot Lake Biol. Sta.1: 96–103. 1937.Google Scholar
  11. —. The ecology and geologic role of mangroves in Florida. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. 517: 303–412. 1940.Google Scholar
  12. —. The natural features of southern Florida, especially the vegetation, and the everglades. Fla. Geol. Surv., Bull.25: 1–311. 1943.Google Scholar
  13. -. The peat deposits of Florida. Fla. Geol. Surv., Bull.30. 1946.Google Scholar
  14. Demaree, D. Submerging experiments withTaxodium. Ecology13: 258–262. 1932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gano, Laura. A study of physiographic ecology in northern Florida. Bot. Gaz.63: 337–372. 1917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garren, K. H. Effects of fire on vegetation of the southeastern United States. Bot. Rev.9: 617–655. 1943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hall, T. F. andW. T. Penfound. Cypress-gum communities in the Blue Girth Swamp near Selma, Alabama. Ecology24: 208–217. 1943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. —, — andA. D. Hess. Water level relationships of plants in the Tennessee Valley. Tenn. Acad. Sci.10: 18–60. 1946.Google Scholar
  19. Harper, R. M. Geography and vegetation of Northern Florida. Ann. Rep. Fla. Geol. Survey6: 163–437. 1914.Google Scholar
  20. -. Natural resources of southern Florida. Fla. Geol. Survey 18th Ann. Rep. 1927.Google Scholar
  21. —. A middle Florida white cedar swamp. Torreya26: 81–84. 1926.Google Scholar
  22. Harshberger, J. W. The vegetation of south Florida, south of the 27° 30′ North, exclusive of the Florida keys. Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Phila.7: 51–189. 1914.Google Scholar
  23. Hawley, R. C. et al. Forest cover types of eastern United States. Jour. For.30: 451–498. 1932. [Revised, 1940].Google Scholar
  24. Hitchcock, A. E., P. W. Zimmerman, Henry Kirkpatrick, andT. T. Earle. Water hyacinth; its growth, reproduction, and practical control by 2,4-D. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst.15: 363–401. 1949.Google Scholar
  25. Hotchkiss, N. andR. E. Stewart. Vegetation of Patuxent Refuge, Maryland. Am. Mid. Nat.38: 1–75. 1947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hunt, K. W. Floating mats on a southeastern coastal plain reservoir. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club70: 481–488. 1943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kearney, T. H. The plant covering of Okracoke Island. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb.5: 261–319. 1900.Google Scholar
  28. —. Report of a botanical survey of the Dismal Swamp region. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb.5: 320–550. 1901.Google Scholar
  29. Korstian, C. F. andW. D. Brush. Southern white cedar. U. S. Dept. Agr., Tech. Bull.251: 1–76. 1931.Google Scholar
  30. Kurz, H. andD. Demaree. Cypress buttresses and knees in relation to water and air. Ecology15: 36–41. 1934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Little, E. L. The vegetation of Muskogee County, Oklahoma. Am. Mid. Nat.19: 559–572. 1938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. - andC. E. Olmsted. An ecological study of the Southeastern Oklahoma Protective Unit. MS, Univ. Okla. Library. 1931.Google Scholar
  33. - and -. Trees and shrubs of the southeastern Oklahoma protective unit. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci.16: 1936.Google Scholar
  34. Lloyd, F. E. andS. M. Tracy. The insular flora of Mississippi and Louisiana. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club28: 61–101. 1901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lynch, J. J. The alluvial marshes and swamps of Louisiana. [Unpub. MS. 1940].Google Scholar
  36. —. The place of burning in management of the Gulf Coast wildlife refuges. Jour. Wildl. Mgt.5: 454–457. 1941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McGee, W. J. The Lafayette formation. U. S. Geol. Surv. 12th Ann. Rep. 1891.Google Scholar
  38. Marbut, C. F. Soils of the United States. U. S. Dept. Agr., Atlas Am. Agr., Part 3. 1935.Google Scholar
  39. Marmer, H. A. Is the Atlantic Coast sinking? The evidence from tides. Geogr. Rev.38: 652–657. 1948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mattoon, W. R. The southern cypress. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bull. 272. 1915.Google Scholar
  41. Oosting, H. J. An ecological analysis of the plant communities of Piedmont, North Carolina. Am. Mid. Nat.28: 1–126. 1942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Penfound, W. T. Vegetation of Lake Chicot, Louisiana, in relation to wildlife resources. Proc. La. Acad. Sci.12: 47–56. 1949.Google Scholar
  43. — andT. T. Earle. The biology of the water hyacinth. Ecol. Monogr.18: 447–472. 1948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. — andE. S. Hathaway. Plant communities in the marshlands of southeastern Louisiana. Ecol. Monogr.8: 1–56. 1938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. - andJ. D. Schneidau. The relation of land reclamation to aquatic wildlife resources in southeastern Louisiana. Trans. X No. Am. Wildl. Conf: 308–318. 1945.Google Scholar
  46. — andA. G. Watkins. Phytosociological studies in the pinelands of southeastern Louisiana. Am. Mid. Nat.18: 661–682. 1937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pessin, L. J. Forest associations in the uplands of the lower Gulf coastal plain. Ecology14: 1–14. 1933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. — andT. D. Burleigh. Notes on the forest biology of Horn Island, Mississippi. Ecology22: 70–78. 1941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Putnam, J. A. Management of bottomland hardwoods. Sou. For. Exp. Sta., Occ. Paper 116. 1951Google Scholar
  50. Reed, J. F. The relation of the Spartinetum glabrae near Beaufort, North Carolina, to certain edaphic factors. Am. Mid. Nat.38: 605–614. 1947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rigg, G. B. The development of Sphagnum bogs in North America. II. Bot. Rev.17: 109–131. 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Russell, R. G. Lower Mississippi River Data. La. Geol. Bull.8: 1–276. 1936.Google Scholar
  53. Shaler, N. S. Seacoast swamps of the eastern United States. U. S. Geol. Survey, Ann. Rep.6: 353–398. 1885.Google Scholar
  54. Small, J. K. An everglade cypress swamp. Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard.34: 261–267. 1933.Google Scholar
  55. -. Manual of the southeastern flora. 1933.Google Scholar
  56. Steenis, J. H. Waterfowl habitat improvement on Reelfoot Lake. Tenn. Acad. Sci.14: 56–65. 1950.Google Scholar
  57. Tharp, B. C. Structure of Texas vegetation east of the 98th meridian. Univ. Tex. Bull. 2606. 1926.Google Scholar
  58. Uphof, J. C. Th. Halophytes. Bot. Rev.7: 1–59. 1941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Viosca, P. Spontaneous combustion in the marshes of southern Louisiana. Ecology12: 439–442. 1931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Weaver, J. E. andF. E. Clements. Plant ecology. 1938.Google Scholar
  61. Welch, Winona. An ecological study of the bald cypress in Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci.41: 207–213. 1931.Google Scholar
  62. Wells, B. W. Plant communities of the coastal plain of North Carolina and their successional relations. Ecology9: 230–242. 1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. —. Ecological problems of the southeastern United States coastal plain. Bot. Rev.8: 533–561. 1942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. -. Vegetation of Holly Shelter Wildlife Management Area. N. C. Dept. Cons., Bull.2. 1946.Google Scholar
  65. Wood, R. D. Stability and zonation of Characeae. Ecology31: 642–647. 1950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wright, A. H. andA. A. Wright. The habitats and composition of the vegetation of Okefinokee Swamp, Georgia. Ecol. Monogr.2: 109–232. 1932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1952

Authors and Affiliations

  • William T. Penfound
    • 1
  1. 1.University of OklahomaNorman

Personalised recommendations