# A turbulent friction and heat transfer study of dispersed fluids with ultra-micronized metallic particles

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## Abstract

Turbulent friction and heat transfer behaviors of dispersed fluids with ultra-micronized metallic particles are experimentally investigated in a circular pipe. Viscosity measurements are also conducted by using a viscometer. Aqueous mixtures with γ-Al_{2}O_{3} and TiO_{2} particles of which the mean diameters are 13 and 27 nm, respectively, are used to represent the dispersed fluids. The ranges of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers tested are 10^{4}∼10^{5} and 5.6∼10.7, respectively. The relative viscosity of the dispersed fluid with γ-Al_{2}O_{3} particles is about two hundred at the 10% volume concentration, while that of the dispersed fluid with TiO_{2} particles is about twenty at the same volume concentration. Both of the relative viscosities are the unexpected results compared with predictions from classical theory of suspension rheology. Darcy friction factors for the comparatively dilute dispersion fluids used in present study coincide well with Kays correlation for tubulent flow of a single phase fluid, which implies that additional pumping power is not required despite adding solid particles into water. The Nusselt number of both the dispersed fluids for fully developed turbulent flow increases with increasing the volume concentration as well as the Reynolds number as expected. At the maximum volume concentration of 3% approximately, the percentage heat transfer enhancement due to addition of particles for the γ-Al_{2}O_{3} and TiO_{2} dispersing fluid systems are 60% and 30%, respectively. Under the range of volume concentration in the present study, the new correlation for turbulent convective heat transfer for both of the dispersed fluids is given by the following equation: Nu=0.021Re^{0.8}Pr.^{0.5}

## Key Words

Viscosity Heat Transfer Enhancement Pressure Drop Dispersed Fluid Ultra-Micronized Metallic Particle## Preview

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