Advertisement

Mycotoxin Research

, 23:59 | Cite as

Natural occurrence of aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins and zearalenone in maize from Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

  • L. E. Broggi
  • A. M. Pacin
  • A. Gasparovic
  • C. Sacchi
  • A. Rothermel
  • A. Gallay
  • S. Resnik
Article

Abstract

In Entre Ríos, Argentina, corn is one of the most important cereal grains produced, being an important income for the regional economy. The aim of this work was to assess aflatoxins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) in corn harvest in 2003 and 2004 in the most contaminated departments found in previous studies in selected sampling places. At the harvest time, when the trucks arrived to store plants, samples of corn were taken from seven different positions of the trucks and from five in the trailer. Composite samples were randomised reduced to 10 kg. The samples were analysed by immunological tests, by thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and/or gas liquid chromatography-electron capture detector (GLC-ECD). In 2003 average contamination was 3.19 u.g/kg for aflatoxins, 118.5 μg/kg for deoxynivalenol, 230.8 μg/kg for zearalenone and 10200 μg/kg of total fumonisins (HPLC and ELISA quantification showed a linear correlation (r2 =0.9618), but RIDASCREEN®FAST values were 1.7 higher than HPLC values); in 2004 deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were not detected and an average of 2.0 μg/kg for aflatoxins and 4700 μg/kg for total fumonisins was found.

This province, with the earliest harvested corn in the country each summer, tends to display different contaminations from the rest of the provinces, probably due to climate characteristics, particularly hotter weather.

Keywords

aflatoxins deoxynivalenol fumonisins zearalenone corn 

References

  1. 1.
    Resnik S, Neira S, Pacin A, Martinez E, Apro N, Latreite S (1996) A survey of the natural occurrence of aflatoxins and zearalenone in Argentine field maize: 1983-1994. Food Addit Contam 13 (1): 115–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    González HHL, Martínez EJ, Pacin AM, Resnik SL, Sydenham EW (1999) Natural co-occurrence of fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and aflatoxins in field trial corn in Argentina. Food Addit Contam 16 (12): 565–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Etcheverry M, Nesci A, Barros G, Torres A, Chulze S (1999) Occurrence ofAspergillus sectionFlavi and aflatoxin B1 in corn genotypes and corn meal in Argentina. Mycopathologia 147: 37–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chulze SN, Ramirez ML, Farnochi MC, Pascale M, Visconti A, March G (1996)Fusarium and Fumonisin Occurrence in Argentina Corn at Different Ear Maturity Stages. J Agric Food Chem 44 (9): 2797–2801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Torres AM, Reynoso MM, Rojo FG, Ramirez ML, Chulze SN (2001)Fusarium species (sectionLiseola) and its mycotoxins in maize harvested in northern Argentina. Food Addit Contam 18 (9): 836–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chulze S, Bertinetti C, Dalcero A, Etcheverry M, Farnochi C, Torres A, Rizzo I, Varsavsky E (1989) Incidence of Aflatoxin, Zearalenone and Deoxinivalenol on Corn in Argentina. Mycotoxin Research 5: 9–12Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Martins JL, Zitelli S, Basilico ML, Basílico JC (2002) Evolutión de especies deFusarium en los estadíos de formación del grano de maíz y determinatión de Fusaproliferina y Beauvericina. Revista FABICIB 6: 205–212Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Saubois A, Nepote MC, Basilico JC (1992) Incidence of Fusarium toxins in corn and milling byproducts. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición 42 (2): 168–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sydenham EW, Shepard GS, Thiel PG, Marasas WFO, Rheeder JP, Peralta Sanhueza CE, González HHL, Resnik SL (1993) Fumonisins in Argentinian Field-Trial Corn. J Agric Food Chem 41 (6): 891–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    http://www.sagpya.mecon.gov.arGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bolsa de Cereales de Entre Ríos http://www. bolsacer.com.arGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pacin AM, Broggi LE, Resnik SL, Gonzalez HHL (2001) Mycoflora and Mycotoxins natural occurrence in corn from Entre Ríos Province, Argentina. Mycotoxin Research 17: 31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Broggi LE, Resnik SL, Pacin AM, González HHL, Cano G, Taglieri D (2002) Distribution of fumonisins in dry-milled corn fractions in Argentina. Food Addit Contam 19 (5): 465–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Croteau SM, Prelusky DB, Trenholm HL (1994) Analysis of trichothecene mycotoxins by gas chromatography with Electron Capture Detection. J Agric Food Chem 42 (4): 928–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Samar MM, Fontan CF, Resnik SL, Pacin AM, Castillo MD (2003) Distribution of deoxynivalenol in wheat, wheat flour, bran, and gluten, and variability associated with the test procedure. J AOAC Int 86 (3): 551–556PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of Mycotoxin Research and Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. E. Broggi
    • 1
  • A. M. Pacin
    • 2
    • 3
  • A. Gasparovic
    • 1
  • C. Sacchi
    • 1
  • A. Rothermel
    • 1
  • A. Gallay
    • 1
  • S. Resnik
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Facultad de BromatologiaUniversidad Nacional de Entre RíosEntre RíosArgentina
  2. 2.Centro de Investigación en Micotoxinas - Fundación de Investigaciones Teresa Benedicta de la CruzLujánArgentina
  3. 3.CICLa PlataArgentina
  4. 4.Department of Organic ChemistryFacultad de Ciencias Exactas y NaturalesArgentina

Personalised recommendations