Current treatment options in multiple sclerosis



Multiple Sclerosis Mitoxantrone Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Alemtuzumab Natalizumab 

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Hohlfeld R:Biotechnological agents for the immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis. Principles, problems and perspectives.Brain, 1997, 120:865–916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Of importance Antel J, Bar-Or A:Roles of immunoglobulins and B cells in multiple sclerosis: from pathogenesis to treatment.J Neuroimmunol 2006, 180:3–8. The review summarizes the current knowledge of B-cell involvement in MS.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Trapp BD, Peterson J, Ransohoff RM, et al.:Axonal transection in the lesions of multiple sclerosis.N Engl J Med 1998, 338:278–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Peterson JW, Bèo L, Mèork S, et al.:Transected neurites, apoptotic neurons, and reduced inflammation in cortical multiple sclerosis lesions.Ann Neurol 2001, 50:389–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lucchinetti C, Brèuck W, Parisi J, et al.:Heterogeneity of multiple sclerosis lesions: implications for the pathogenesis of demyelination.Ann Neurol 2000, 47:707–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    McDonald WI, Compston A, Edan G, et al.:Recommended diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines from the International Panel on the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis.Ann Neurol 2001, 50:121–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Of major importance Polman CH, Reingold SC, Edan G, et al.:Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2005 revisions to the “McDonald Criteria”.Ann Neurol 2005, 58:840–846. Outlines the current standard diagnostic criteria for relapsing and progressive MS.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dalton CM, Brex PA, Miszkiel KA, et al.:Application of the new McDonald criteria to patients with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis Ann Neurol 2002, 52:47–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Langer-Gould A, Popat RA, Huang SM, et al.:Clinical and demographic predictors of long-term disability in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.Arch Neurol 2006, 63:1686–1691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Confavreux C, Vukusic S, Moreau T, et al.:Relapses and progression of disability in multiple sclerosis.N Engl J Med 2000, 343:1430–1438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jacobs LD, Beck RW, Simon JH, et al.:The effect of initiating interferon beta-1a therapy during a first demyelinating event on the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis.N Engl J Med 2000, 343:898–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Comi G, Filippi M, Barkhof F, et al.:Effect of early interferon treatment on conversion to definite multiple sclerosis: a randomised study.Lancet 2001, 357:1576–1582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kappos L, Polman CH, Freedman MS, et al.:Treatment with interferon beta-1b delays conversion to clinically definite and McDonald MS in patients with clinically isolated syndromes.Neurology 2006, 67:1242–1249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jacobs LD, Cookfair DL, Rudick RA, et al.:Intramuscular interferon beta-1a for disease progression in relapsing multiple sclerosis.Ann Neurol 1996, 39:285–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study of interferon beta-1a in relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. PRISMS (Prevention of Relapses and Disability by Interferon beta-1a Subcutaneously in Multiple Sclerosis) Study Group.Lancet 1998, 352:1498–1504.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Of major importance Polman CH, O’Connor PW, Havrdova E, et al.:A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of natalizumab for relapsing multiple sclerosis.N Engl J Med 2006, 354:899–910. This study describes the phase III trial results of natalizumab in relapsing MS.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hartung HP, Gonsette R, Kèonig N, et al.:Mitoxantrone in progressive multiple sclerosis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised, multicentre trial.Lancet 2002, 360:2018–2025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Panitch H, Miller A, Paty D, et al.:Interferon beta-1b in secondary progressive MS: results from a 3-year controlled study.Neurology 2004, 63:1788–1795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cohen JA, Cutter GR, Fischer JS, et al.:Benefit of interferon beta-1a on MSFC progression in secondary progressive MS.Neurology 2002, 59:679–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Placebo-controlled multicentre randomised trial of interferon beta-1b in treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. European Study Group on interferon beta-1b in secondary progressive MS,Lancet 1998, 352:1491–1497.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cohen JA, Antel JP:Does interferon beta help in secondary progressive MS? Neurology 2004, 63:1768–1769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Of major importance Kappos L, Weinshenker B, Pozzilli C, et al.:Interferon beta-1b in secondary progressive MS: a combined analysis of the two trials.Neurology 2004, 63:1779–1787. This report evaluates how two trials of the same interferon preparation observed very different resultsPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Neutralizing antibodies during treatment of multiple sclerosis with interferon beta-1b: experience during the first three years. The IFNB Multiple Sclerosis study Group and the University of British Columbia MS/MRI Analysis Group.Neurology 1996, 47:889–894.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rudick RA, Simonian NA, Alam JA, et al.:Incidence and significance of neutralizing antibodies to interferon beta-1a in multiple sclerosis.Neurology 1998, 50:1266–1272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Francis GS, Rice GP, Alsop JC:Interferon beta-1a in MS: results following development of neutralizing antibodies in PRISMS.Neurology 2005, 65:48–55. This paper demonstrated the deleterious impact of NAbs on the effect of interferon β-1a treatment.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sorensen PS, Koch-Henriksen N, Ross C, et al.:Appearance and disappearance of neutralizing antibodies during interferon-beta therapy.Neurology 2005, 65:33–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    CTCS Taskforce:Changing Therapy in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis: Considerations and Recommendations of a Task Force of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society. New York: National Multiple Sclerosis Society; 2004.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Panitch H, Goodin DS, Francis G, et al.:Randomized, comparative study of interferon beta-1a treatment regimens in MS: the EVIDENCE trial.Neurology 2002, 59:1496–1506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rask C, Unger E, Walton M:Comparative Study of Rebif to Avonex and Orphan Exclusivity. Rockville, MD: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration; 2002.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hernan MA, Olek MJ, Ascherio A:Cigarette smoking and incidence of multiple sclerosis.Am J Epidemiol 2001, 154:69–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hernan MA, Jick SS, Logroscino G, et al.:Cigarette smoking and the progression of multiple sclerosis.Brain 2005, 128:1461–1465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhang SM, Hernan MA, Olek MJ, et al.:Intakes of carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin E and MS risk among two large cohorts of women.Neurology 2001, 57:75–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Munger KL, Zhang SM, O’Reilly E, et al.:Vitamin D intake and incidence of multiple sclerosis.Neurology 2004, 62:60–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Munger KL, Levin LI, Hollis BW, et al.:Serum 25-hydroyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis.JAMA 2006, 296:2832–2838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mostert S, Kesselring J:Effects of a short-term exercise training program on aerobic fitness, fatigue, health perception and activity level of subjects with multiple sclerosis.Mult Scler 2002, 8:161–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Romberg A, Virtanen A, Ruutiainen J, et al.:Effects of a 6-month exercise program on patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized study.Neurology 2004, 63:2034–2038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Interferon beta-1b in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: final outcome of the randomized controlled trial. The IFNB Multiple Sclerosis Study Group and The University of British Columbia MS/MRI Analysis Group.Neurology 1995, 45:1277–1285.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Johnson KP, Brooks BR, Cohen JA, et al.:Copolymer 1 reduces the relapse rate and improves disability in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results of a phase III multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Neurology 1995, 45:1268–1276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sellebjerg F, Frederiksen JL, Nielsen PM, Olesen J:Doubleblind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of oral, high-dose methylprednisolone in attacks of MS.Neurology 1998, 51:529–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Keegan M, Konig F, McClelland R, et al.:Relation between humoral pathological changes in multiple sclerosis and response to therapeutic plasma exchange.Lancet 2005, 366:579–582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Krapf H, Morrissey SP, Zenker O, et al.:Effect of mitoxantrone on MRI in progressive MS: results of the MIMS trial.Neurology 2005, 65:690–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lynn D, Blum W, Cataland S, et al.:Multiple, sclerosis and mitoxantrone treatment-related leukemia: a single center experience.Neurology 2006, 66:A31.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Le Page E, Leray E, Chaperon J, et al.:5-year follow-up after mitoxantrone treatment start: an observational study of 100 consecutive patients with aggressive relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.Neurology 2006, 66:A33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Of major importance Rudick RA, Stuart WH, Calabresi PA, et al.:Natalizumab plus interferon beta-1a for relapsing multiple sclerosis.N Engl J Med 2006, 354:911–923. This study demonstrated efficacy of natalizumab in patients suboptimally responding to interferon therapy.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Smith DR, Weinstock-Guttman B, Cohen JA, et al.:A randomized, blinded trial of combination therapy with cyclophosphamide in patients with active MS on interferonbeta.Mult Scler 2005, 11:573–582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Goodkin DE, Kinkel RP, Weinstock-Guttman B, et al.:A phase II study of i.v. methylprednisolone in secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis.Neurology, 1999, 52:896–897.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kappos L, Antel J, Comi G, et al.:Oral fingolimod (FTY720) for relapsing multiple sclerosis.N Engl J Med 2006, 355:1124–1140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    O’Connor PW, Li D, Freedman MS, et al.:A phase II study of the safety and efficacy of teriflunomide in multiple sclerosis with relapses.Neurology 2006, 66:894–900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jonsson, S, Andersson G, Fex T, et al.:Synthesis and biological evaluation of new 1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxamides for treatment of autoimmune disorders: structure-activity relationship.J Med Chem 2004, 47:2075–2088.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Polman C, Barkhof F, Sandberg-Wollheim M, et al.:Treatment with laquinimod reduces development of active RMI lesions in relapsing MS.Neurology 2005, 64:987–991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Romine JS, Sipe JC, Koziol JA, et al.:A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of cladribine in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.Proc Assoc Am Physicians 1999, 111:35–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Brousil JA, Roberts RJ, Schlein AL:Cladribine: an investigational immunomodulatory agent for multiple sclerosis.Ann Pharmacother 2006, 40:1814–1821.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Coles AJ, Cox A, Le Page E, et al.:The window of therapeutic opportunity in multiple sclerosis: evidence from monoclonal antibody therapy.J Neurol 2006, 253:98–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fox E, Coles A, Margolin D, et al.:Immune thrombocytopenic purpura following treatment of multiple sclerosis patients with alemtuzumab in CAMMS223: case reports and risk management plan implementation.Mult Scler 2006, 12:P800.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kappos L, Miller D, MacManusDG, et al.:BGooo12, a novel oral fumarate, is effective in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.Mult Scler 2006, 12:S85.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Warren KG, Catz I, Ferenczi LZ, et al.:Intravenous synthetic peptide MBP8298 delayed disease progression in an HLA class II-defined cohort of patients with progressive multiple sclerosis: results of a 24-month double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and 5 years of follow-up treatment.Eur J Neurol 2006, 13:887–895.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hellings N, Raus J, Stinissen P:T-cell vaccination in multiple sclerosis: update on clinical application and mode of action.Autoimmun Rev 2004, 3:267–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Krupp LB, MacAllister WS:Treatment of pediatric multiple sclerosis.Curr Treat Options Neurol 2005, 7:191–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Medicine Group LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mellen Center for Multiple SclerosisClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations