Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 75–86 | Cite as

Molecular biology of Alzheimer's amyloid—Dutch variant

  • Thomas Wisniewski
  • Blas Frangione


Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, Dutch type (HCHWA-D) (or familial cerebral amyloid angiopathy) and familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) share several properties. Both are autosomal dominant forms of cerebral amyloidosis characterized by β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition. In HCHWA-D the Aβ is predominantly found in blood vessels and in early parenchymal plaques, whereas in AD parenchymal Aβ deposits in the form of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are a more prominent finding. Point mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) have recently been described, in both conditions. A G to C transversion at codon 618 (extracellular portion of APP695), producing a single amino acid substitution of glutamine instead of glutamine acid, occurs in HCHWA-D; whereas mutations at codon 642 in the intramembrane region of APP695 (phenylalanine, isoleucine, or glycine instead of valine) are associated with early onset FAD. This suggests that the site of particular mutations in the APP gene and the type of amino acid substitution in the APP holoprotein are more important in determining clincopathological phenotype and age at which Aβ is deposited. Thus FAD and HCHWA-D can be regarded as two sides of the same coin.

Index Entries

Alzheimer's disease β-amyloid amyloid familial Alzheimer's disease Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage with Amyloidosis Dutch type 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Wisniewski
    • 1
    • 2
  • Blas Frangione
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyNew York University Medical CenterNew York
  2. 2.Department PathologyNew York University Medical CenterNew York

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