Preparation and structural stability investigation of CoN/CN soft X-ray multilayers
The structural stability of heat-treated CoN/CN soft X-ray multilayers fabricated by dual-facing-target sputtering has been investigated by using complementary measurement techniques. The high temperature annealing results imply that the destructive threshold of the Co/C multilayers is improved by 100–200 degrees centigrade through doping with N. The low-angle X-ray diffraction of CoN/CN soft X-ray multilayers indicates that the period expansion of the multilayers is only 4 % at 400°C, and the interface pattern still exists even if they were annealed at 700°C. The Raman spectra analyses give the evidence that the formation of the sp3 bonding in the CN sublayers can be suppressed effectively by doping N with atoms, and thus the period expansion resulting from the changes in the density of CN layers can be decreased considerably. The X-ray photoelectron spectra analyses present the information of the existence of the strong covalent bonding betweenC andN atoms, and the ionic bonding between Co and N atoms, which can slow down the tendency of the structural relaxation. The interstitial N atoms decrease the mobility of Co atoms, and thus the fcc-Co and hcp-Co coexist even though the annealing temperature is much higher than the phase transformation temperature of 420°C, leading to the suppression of the grain growth.
Keywordssoft X-ray multilayers doping annealing thermal stability
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